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Lecturer Notes On IT 2353 UNIT III

Lecturer Notes On IT 2353 UNIT III

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Published by: Shankar on Mar 21, 2011
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UNIT IIIHost Objects : Browsers and the DOM-Introduction to the Document Object Model DOM Historyand Levels-Intrinsic Event Handling-Modifying Element Style-The Document Tree-DOM EventHandling-Accommodating Noncompliant Browsers Properties of window-Case Study. Server-SideProgramming: Java Servlets- Architecture -Overview-A Servelet-Generating Dynamic Content-LifeCycle- Parameter Data-Sessions-Cookies- URL Rewriting-Other Capabilities-Data Storage Servletsand Concurrency-Case Study-Related Technologies.Document Object Model:Introduction:The Document Object Model is a platform- and language-neutral interface that will allow programsand scripts to dynamically access and update the content, structure and style of documents.When we see a document using a browser, DOM presents documents as a hierarchy of HTML or XML objects in the document. This hierarchy structure makes it possible for programmers or browsers to access and delete, add, or edit their content, attributes and style.The DOM makes it possible for programmers to write applications which work properly on allbrowsers and servers and on all platforms.What is DOM?The DOM is a W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) standard.The DOM defines a standard for accessing documents like XML and HTML:"The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allowsprograms and scripts to dynamically access and update the content, structure, and style of adocument."The DOM is separated into 3 different parts / levels:
Core DOM - standard model for any structured document
XML DOM - standard model for XML documents
HTML DOM - standard model for HTML documents
DOM History
The DOM originated as a specification to allow JavaScript scripts and Java programs to beportable among Web browsers."Dynamic HTML" was the immediate ancestor of the Document Object Model, and it wasoriginally thought of largely in terms of browsers.However, when the DOM Working Group was formed at W3C, it was also joined by vendorsin other domains, including HTML or XML editors and document repositories.Several of these vendors had worked with SGML before XML was developed; as a result, theDOM has been influenced by SGML Groves and the HyTime standard.Some of these vendors had also developed their own object models for documents in order toprovide an API for SGML/XML editors or document repositories, and these object models have alsoinfluenced the DOM.The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Obeject Model inresponse to the development of various proprietary models for HTML, particularly those used inWeb Browsers.W3C began development of the DOM in mid-1990s. Although the W3C never produced aspecification for DOM 0, it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in thespecification of HTML4. By October 1998, the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released.DOM 2 was issued in November 2000, with specifics on the style sheet object model andstyle information manipulation. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of theDOM specification.
Levels of DOM
The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels, each of which contains required andoptional modules.To claim to support a level, an application must implement all the requirements of theclaimed level and levels below it. As of 2005, Level 1, Level 2, and some modules of Level 3 areW3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form.
DOM Level 1 SpecificationsDocument Object Model Level 1 is a platform- and language-neutral interface that allowsprograms and scripts to dynamically access and update the content, structure and style of documents.The Document Object Model provides a standard set of objects for representing HTML andXML documents, a standard model of how these objects can be combined, and a standard interfacefor accessing and manipulating them.Vendors can support the DOM as an interface to their proprietary data structures and APIs,and content authors can write to the standard DOM interfaces rather than product-specific APIs, thusincreasing interoperability on the Web.The goal of the DOM specification is to define a programmatic interface for XML andHTML.The DOM Level 1 specification is separated into two parts:Core and HTML.TheCore DOMLevel 1 section provides a low-level set of fundamental interfaces that canrepresent any structured document, as well as defining extended interfaces for representing an XMLdocument.These extended XML interfaces need not be implemented by a DOM implementation thatonly provides access to HTML documents; all of the fundamental interfaces in the Core section mustbe implemented.A compliant DOM implementation that implements the extended XML interfaces is requiredto also implement the fundamental Core interfaces, but not the HTML interfaces.TheHTML Level1 section provides additional, higher-level interfaces that are used with thefundamental interfaces defined in the Core Level 1 section to provide a more convenient view of anHTML document.A compliant implementation of the HTML DOM implements all of the fundamental Coreinterfaces as well as the HTML interfaces.

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