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AP Chemistry - Kinetics of a Reaction Lab

AP Chemistry - Kinetics of a Reaction Lab

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Published by Jonathan Chen
AP Chemistry Kinetics of a Reaction Lab
AP Chemistry Kinetics of a Reaction Lab

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Jonathan Chen on Mar 22, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/01/2014

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urpose:The purposeof this lab isto use microscale techniques to:
o
 
find the volume of one drop of water 
o
 
determine the reaction rate and the total rate law of a reactioninvolving the oxidation of iodide ions by bromate ions in thepresence of acid
o
 
determine the order of each individual reactant by varying theconcentration of each reactant individually
o
 
determine the activation energy of a reaction involving theoxidation of iodide ions by bromate ions in the presence of acidby repeating the experiment at several different temperatures
o
 
calculate the rate constants at the different temperatures
o
 
observe the effect of a catalyst on the rateackground:This experiment in designed to study the kinetics of a chemicaleaction. The reaction involves the oxidation of iodide ions by bromate ions inhe presence of acid:6I
-(aq)
+ BrO
3-(aq)
+ 6H
+(aq)
3I
2(aq)
+ Br 
-(aq)
+ 3H
2
O
(l)
Reaction 1
 he reaction is somewhat slow at room temperature. The reaction rate dependsn the concentration of the reactants and on the temperature. The rate law for he reaction is a mathematical expression that relates the reaction rate to theoncentrations of the reactants. If the rate of the reaction is expressed as theate of decrease in concentration of bromate ion, the rate law has the form:Rate = -¨[BrO
3
]/¨t = k[I
-
]
x
[BrO
3-
]
y
[H
+
]
z
Equation 1
 here the square brackets refer to the molar concentration of the indicatedpecies. The rate is equal to the change in concentration of the bromate ion. -[BrO
3-
], divided by the change in time for the reaction to occur, ¨t. The termk" is the rate constant for the equation, which changes as the temperaturehanges. The exponents x,y, and z, are called the "orders" of the reaction withespect to the indicated substance, and show how the concentration of eachubstance affects the rate of reaction.The total rate law for the process is determined by measuring the rate,valuating the rate constant, k, and determining the order of the reaction for ach reactant (the values of x, y, and z.)
 
To find the rate of the reaction a method is needed to measure the ratet which on e of the reactants is used up, or the rate at which one of theroducts is formed. In this experiment, the rate of reaction will be measuredased on the rate at which iodine forms. The reaction will be carried out in theresence of thiosulfate ions, which will react with iodine as it forms:I
2(aq)
+ 2S
2
O
3-2(aq)
2I
-(aq)
+ S
4
O
6-2(aq)
Reaction 2
eaction 1 is somewhat slow. Reaction 2 is extremely rapid, so that as quicklys iodine is produced in reaction1, it is consumed in reaction 2. Reaction 2 isxtremely rapid, so that as quickly as iodine is produced in reaction 1, it isonsumed in reaction 2. Reaction 2 continues until all of the added thiosulfateas been used up. After that, iodine begins to increase in concentration inolution. If some starch is present, iodine reacts with the starch to form a deeplue-colored complex that is readily apparent.Carrying out reaction 1 in the presence of thiosulfate ion and starchroduces a chemical ³clock.´ When the thiosulfate is consumed, the solutionurns blue almost instantly.In this laboratory procedure, all of the reactions use the same quantityf thiosulfate ion. The blue color appears when all the thiosulfate is consumed.n examination of reactions 1 and 2 shows that six moles of S
2
O
3-2
are neededo react with the three moles of I
2
formed from the reaction of one mole of rO
3-.
Knowing the amount of thiosulfate used, it is possible to calculate bothhe amount of I
2
that is formed and the amount of BrO
3-
that has reacted at theime of the color change. The reaction rate is expressed as the decrease inoncentration of BrO
3-
ion divided by the time it takes for the blue color toppear.There is an energy barrier that all reactants surmount for a reaction toake place. This energy can range from almost zero to many hundreds of J/mol. This energy barrier is called the activation energy, E
a
.Reactants need toossess this amount of energy both to overcome the repulsive electron cloudorces between approaching molecules and to break the existing bonds in theeacting molecules. In general, the higher the activation energy, the slower theeaction. The activation energy is realted to the rate constant by the Arrheniusquation:
= Ae
-Ea/RT
here A is the frequency constant and is related to the frequency of collisions;is the universal gas constant; and T is the temperature in K.Catalysts are substances that speed up a reaction, but are not consumedn the reaction. Catalysts work by lowering the overall activation energy of theeaction, thus increasing the rate of the reaction.
 
The experiment is designed so that the amounts of the reactants that areonsumed are small in comparison with the total quantities present. This meanshat the concentration of reactants is almost unchanged during the reaction, andherefore the reaction rate is almost a constant during this time.aterials:
y
 
5
mL 0.1M cupric nitratesolution, Cu(NO
3
)
y
 
5
mL distilled water,
y
 
5
mL 0.10M HCl solution
y
 
5
mL 0.010M potassiumiodide, KI solution
y
 
5
mL 0.040M potassiumbromate, KBrO
3
solution
y
 
5
mL 2% starch solution
y
 
5
mL sodiumthiosulfate,Na
2
S
2
O
3
solution
y
 
Cassette tape case
y
 
Timer, seconds
y
 
Analytical balance (0.001gprecision)
y
 
(1) 10ml beaker 
y
 
(7) Beral-type pipets withmicrotip
y
 
Cotton swaps
y
 
Toothpicks
y
 
Thermometer, 0
-100
C
y
 
(2) 12-well reaction strips
y
 
Trough
y
 
7 different colors of labeltaperocedure:
art 1 ± Find the Volume of One Drop of Solution
) Obtain a microtip Beral-pipet. Fill the pipet with approx. 3mL of water.)Mass a small beaker using an analytical balance. Record the mass.)Holding the pipet vertically, deliver 
5
drops of water into the beaker, nadind the total mass. Record the data.) Add an additional
5
drops of water into the beaker, and again determine theass. Record the value.) Deliver 
5
more drops and again find the mass. Record the data.
art 2 ±Determine the Reaction Rate and Calculate the Rate Law
) Obtain 6 microtip pipets and fold an adhesive label around the stem of eachipet. Label the pipets KI, H
2
O, Starch, Na
2
S
2
O
3
.) Fill each pipet with about 2mL of the appropriate liquid.) Place the pipets in an opened cassette case for storage.) Obtain 2 clean, 12-well reaction strips and arrage them so that the numbersan be read from left to right.) Record the temperature of the one of the reaction solutions.

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