genetically programmed and is independent of specific environmentalconditions. An example is walking. This and other early sensory and motor achievementsseem to be relatively unaffected by specific practice. On the other hand, more generalkinds of experience, such as sensory deprivation and sensory enrichment, seem to exertimportant effects.
(A) COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT:
The study of cognitive development is concerned with how the quality of thought processimproves with experience and maturity. The central theorist on this is Jean Piaget. In histheory, cognition develops as the child applies
assimilation and accommodation
toexisting schemes, and the do so by passing through the same sequence of developmentalstages.
The first stage in this theory is the
Sensory Motor Stage,
which lasts from birth until abouttwo years of age. Infants are subjective and unaware of any existence other than their own.The infant fails to distinguish between the self and no self,
(out of sight out of mind).
Theinfant can’t conceive of an object’s existence once it is no longer immediately perceptible.
Towards the end of this stage the infant develops
Objects Permanence, Sensory-Motor Schemas
This is achieved through the acquisition of new mental imagery that allows them to imagine the existence of objects not directly perceptible. The selves are distinguished from reality, which becomes separate from their own action.
2)PRE-OPERA TIONAL THINKING:
a)The second stage is the
stage, which lasts till about six or seven. Childrenare capable of representational thoughts but lack mental operation that order and organizethese thoughts. They cannot, for example distinguish or recognize that another personmight view reality differently if situated at a different point
(left & Right)
b)Characteristic deficits at this stage includes inability to conserve number and quantity,(Lack
of Conservation Ability),
, an inability to take another person’s perspective. Until the age of six the child also fails the task of
because of deficient logic at this stage.
3)CONCRETE OPERATIONAL THINKING:
a)At approximately seven years of age, the child enters the
stage,marked by the onset of logical thinking. This enables the child to solve correctly all the