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Models Of Understanding Human Behaviour

Models Of Understanding Human Behaviour

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Published by Hassan.shehri

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Published by: Hassan.shehri on Nov 22, 2007
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Introduction To Models And Methods Of Understanding Human Behaviour
There are five basic models in the understanding of human behaviour. These modelsinclude: The Biological Model, The Psychoanalytic Model, The Behaviourist Model,The Cognitive-Behavioural Model, and The Humanistic Model.
 APPROACHES 
:
1.
Biological
: Concerned with the activity of the nervous system, especially the brain,action of hormones & genetics2.
Psychodynamic
: Emphasizes internal conflicts, mostly unconscious3.
Behavioral
: Concerned with learning, especially each person's experience withrewards and punishments4.
Cognitive
: Studies the mechanisms through which people receive, store, retrieve,and otherwise process information5.
Humanistic
: Emphasizes individual potential for growth and the role of 
unique perceptions
in guiding behavior and mental processes.
The Psychodynamic Approach
The Interpretation of Dreams
was a landmark for the science of psychology. Freud's ideasabout dreaming and other mental processes were often
controversial.
Whether oneaccepts or rejects Freud's theory, there is little doubt that psychoanalysis had significantimpact.Terms like unconsciousness, ego, defence mechanism were introduced byFreud.
Freud's Structural Models of Personality (Psychoanalysis)
Sigmund Freud's Theory is quite complex and although his writings on psychosexualdevelopment set the groundwork for how our personalities developed, it was only
oneof five parts
to his overall theory of personality. He also believed that different drivingforces develop during these stages which play an important role in how we interactwith the world.
THE Id 
: According to Freud, we are born with our 
Id.
In Psychoanalytical theory, it is the part of the
personality
which contains our primitive impulses such as sex, anger, andhunger. The id is an important part of our personality because as newborns, it allows usto get our basic needs met. Freud believed that the id is based on ou
 pleasure principle.
In other words, the id wants whatever feels good at the time, with noconsideration for the reality of the situation. When a child is hungry, the id wants food,and therefore the child cries.The id doesn't care about reality, about the needs of anyone else, only its own satisfaction.If you think about it, babies are not real considerate of their parents' wishes. They haveno care for time, whether their parents are sleeping, relaxing, eating dinner, or bathing.When the id wants something, nothing else is important.
The Ego:
Within the next three years, as the child interacts more and more with the world, thesecond part of the personality begins to develop. Freud called this part the
 Ego.
It is the part of the personality which maintains a balance between our impulses (id) and our conscience (superego). The ego is based on the
reality principle
.1
 
The ego understands that other people have needs and desires and that sometimes beingimpulsive or selfish can hurt us in the long run. It’s the ego's job to meet the needs of the id, while taking into consideration the reality of the situation.
The Superego
By the age of five the
 Superego
develops. The Superego is the part of the personality thatrepresents the conscience. It is the moral part of us and develops due to the moral andethical restraints placed on us by our caregivers. Many equate the superego with theconscience as it dictates our belief of right and wrong.In a healthy person, according to Freud, the ego is the strongest so that it can satisfy theneeds of the id, not upset the superego, and still take into consideration the reality of every situation. If the id gets too strong, impulses and self gratification take over the person's life. If the superego becomes too strong, the person would be driven by rigidmorals, would be judgmental and unbending in his or her interactions with the world.
The Divisions of MIND
Freud believed that the majority of what we experience in our lives, the underlyingemotions, beliefs, feelings, and impulses are not available to us at a conscious level.He believed that most of what drives us is buried in our 
Unconscious
 Freud also believed that everything we are aware of is stored in our 
Conscious
. At anygiven time, we are only aware of a very small part of what makes up our personality;most of what we are is buried and inaccessible.The final part is the
preconscious
and subconscious. This is the part of us that we canaccess if prompted, but is not in our active conscious. Its right below the surface, butstill buried somewhat unless we search for it. Information such as our telephonenumber, some childhood memories, or the name of your best childhood friend is storedin the preconscious. The iceberg.
Behavioral Model
Behavioral Psychology is basically interested in how our behavior results from the stimuli both in the environment and within ourselves. Scientific Experiment: Often ademanding process, but results have helped us learn a great deal about our behaviors,the effect our environment has on us, how we learn new behaviors, and what motivatesus to change or remain the same. Behaviourism traces its roots to the early part of the20th century, a time when many psychologists emphasized self-analysis of mental processes (
introspection
) or the
psychoanalytic theory
of Sigmund Freud.In contrast, researchers like
 Ivan Pavlov
and John B.
Watson, and B.F Skinner 
began todevelop a framework which emphasized observable processes (environmental
stimuli
and behavioural
responses
). The result was a new approach, behaviourism, which grewin popularity for some fifty years, becoming the dominant framework for experimentalresearch.
The Cognitive Approach
The cognitive approach deals with mental processes like memory and problem solving.By emphasizing mental processes, it places itself in opposition to behaviourism, whichlargely ignores mental processes. (
 Not measurable directly
).Today, the cognitiveapproach has overtaken behaviourism in terms of popularity, and is one of thedominant approaches in contemporary psychology. (Especially in treatment)2

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