Introduction To Models And Methods Of Understanding Human Behaviour
There are five basic models in the understanding of human behaviour. These modelsinclude: The Biological Model, The Psychoanalytic Model, The Behaviourist Model,The Cognitive-Behavioural Model, and The Humanistic Model.
: Concerned with the activity of the nervous system, especially the brain,action of hormones & genetics2.
: Emphasizes internal conflicts, mostly unconscious3.
: Concerned with learning, especially each person's experience withrewards and punishments4.
: Studies the mechanisms through which people receive, store, retrieve,and otherwise process information5.
: Emphasizes individual potential for growth and the role of
in guiding behavior and mental processes.
The Psychodynamic Approach
The Interpretation of Dreams
was a landmark for the science of psychology. Freud's ideasabout dreaming and other mental processes were often
Whether oneaccepts or rejects Freud's theory, there is little doubt that psychoanalysis had significantimpact.Terms like unconsciousness, ego, defence mechanism were introduced byFreud.
Freud's Structural Models of Personality (Psychoanalysis)
Sigmund Freud's Theory is quite complex and although his writings on psychosexualdevelopment set the groundwork for how our personalities developed, it was only
oneof five parts
to his overall theory of personality. He also believed that different drivingforces develop during these stages which play an important role in how we interactwith the world.
: According to Freud, we are born with our
In Psychoanalytical theory, it is the part of the
which contains our primitive impulses such as sex, anger, andhunger. The id is an important part of our personality because as newborns, it allows usto get our basic needs met. Freud believed that the id is based on our
In other words, the id wants whatever feels good at the time, with noconsideration for the reality of the situation. When a child is hungry, the id wants food,and therefore the child cries.The id doesn't care about reality, about the needs of anyone else, only its own satisfaction.If you think about it, babies are not real considerate of their parents' wishes. They haveno care for time, whether their parents are sleeping, relaxing, eating dinner, or bathing.When the id wants something, nothing else is important.
Within the next three years, as the child interacts more and more with the world, thesecond part of the personality begins to develop. Freud called this part the
It is the part of the personality which maintains a balance between our impulses (id) and our conscience (superego). The ego is based on the