DESIGN OF YAGI UDA ANTENNA USING DIFFERENT SHAPES OFIRON ROD AS ANTENNA ELEMENT AT 2GHz
Gulshan Sharma, Ashish Duvey, Manish Jain and P.K. SinghalDepartment of Electronics, Madhav institute of Technology & Science, Gwalior-
In this paper,5-element yagi- udaantenna is designed for the frequency 2GHz usingdifferent shapes of iron rod as antenna element.Return loss of the designed antennas have beencompared also shown in paper.
Yagi-uda antenna (with 5-elementusing different shapes of iron road), spectrumanalyzer FS-135,SWR bridge.
A yagi-uda antenna commonly known simply as ayagi antenna or yagi, is a directional antenna systemconsisting of an array of a dipole and additionalclosely coupled parasitic element(usually a reflector and one or more directors).The dipole in the array isdriven, and another element, typically 5 % longer ,effectively operates as a reflector. Other parasiticelement shorter than the dipole may be added in frontof the dipole and are referred to as directors. Thisarrangement increases antenna directionality and gain.That’s why sometimes it referred to as directionalantenna system. A yagi–uda antenna is a widely usedantenna design due to its high forward gaincapability, low cost and ease of construction. It iscommonly used as a roof top television receiver.As discussed above it has the parasitic element, sothe function of the parasitic element is to improve theradiation pattern in the forward direction. Thereflector is placed behind the dipole and is slightlylonger, it provides 3db of additional forward gain buthaving more than one reflector has little benefit.The parasitic element provide forward gain byredistributing the energy of the EM signal generatedby the dipole.
2. Antenna design
There no simple formulas for designing yagi-udaantenna due to the non-linear relationships betweenphysical parameter such as element length, diameter and position and electrical characteristics such asinput impedance and gain, but performance can beestimated by computer simulation.For a particular operating frequency a typical designwould be shown in table 1. The number of elementused in the antenna depends on the gain which wehave to achieve. So that’s why we have to attachmore element and kept low separation betweenelements to achieve high gain.Table 1. Length of dipoles and separation betweenthem.
Fig 1- Geometrical design of yagi antennaElement Length SeparationReflector 0.55
λ or λ/2