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Threat and Humiliation

Threat and Humiliation

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Published by: TEXTOS ISLÂMICOS - ISLAMIC TEXTS on Mar 22, 2011
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THREAT ANDHUMILIATION
Racial Profiling, Domestic Security,and Human Rights in the United States
U.S. Domestic Human Rights Program
 
Amnesty International is a worldwide human rights activist movement with more than 1.8 million members inmore than 150 countries and territories, including nearly 350,000 members in the United States.Amnesty International’s vision is of a world in which every person enjoys all of the human rights enshrined in theUniversal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights standards.Amnesty International undertakes research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of therights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience and expression, and freedom from discrimination,within the context of its work to promote all human rights.Amnesty International is independent of any government, political ideology, or religious creed. It does not supportor oppose any government or political system. It is concerned solely with the impartial protection of human rights.Amnesty International is funded largely by its worldwide membership and by donations from the public.Second printing (October 2004)First published in September 2004 by Amnesty International USA5 Penn PlazaNew York, NY 10001www.amnestyusa.org© Copyright Amnesty International USA Publications 2004ISBN: 1-887204-43-1Original language: EnglishPrinted by:Globe LithoOne Teaneck RoadRidgefield Park, NJ 07660All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, inany form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording and/or otherwise without the priorpermission of the publishers.
 
Definition of Racial Profiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viForeword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ixAcknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiIntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv 
CHAPTER ONE
The Human Impact of Racial Profiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1
Who Is Subjected to Racial Profiling . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.1
Number of Americans at Risk . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2
Where Racial Profiling Commonly Occurs(as Described by Victims) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.1
While Driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.2
While Walking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.2.3
While Traveling Through Airports . . . . . 8
1.2.4
While Shopping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2.5
While at Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2.6
While Traveling to and from Placesof Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
1.3
Racial Profiling of Immigrant Communities . . 13
1.3.1
Day Laborers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.3.2
Street Vendors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.3.3
Selectively Chosen Deportees andTheir Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
CHAPTER TWO
Lessons—Past and Present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.1
Distressed Individuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.2
Disenfranchised Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.3
Domestic Security Impact of Over-Generalized Suspicion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
CHAPTER THREE
Ending Racial Profiling in the United States . . . . . . . 28
3.1
State Laws on Racial Profiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.2
Recent Federal Efforts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.2.1
A Good Bill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.2.2
Another President Fails toFollow Through . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.2.3
A Resolute Public . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.3
Weakened Constitutional GuaranteesAgainst Racial Profiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.4
International Human Rights TreatiesProhibiting Racial Profiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
CHAPTER FOUR
Conclusions and Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.1
Recommendations to the U.S. Government . . . 35
4.1.1
Take Affirmative Steps to EndRacial Profiling and Related Formsof Discrimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.1.2
Provide Resources and TechnicalAssistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.1.3
Provide Information and Educationon New Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.1.4
Ratify and Comply with InternationalStandards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.2
Recommendations to State and LocalGovernments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.2.1
Pass Comprehensive Anti-RacialProfiling Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.3
Recommendations to Federal, State,and Local Governments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.3.1
Initiate and Support PublicCampaigns Against Racism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.3.2
Respond to Racist Attacks andPublicize the Results of Disciplinary Hearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.3.3
Record and Maintain Data onPolice Misconduct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
4.3.4
Establish Independent Bodiesto Monitor Law Enforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
iii
C O N T E N T S

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