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CLASSIFICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS Ben G. Bareja

CLASSIFICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS Ben G. Bareja

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Agricultural Crops Classifications
Agricultural Crops Classifications

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06/22/2013

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CLASSIFICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS
Ben G. Bareja
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page
INTRODUCTION 2I. BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS 3II. DESCRIPTIVE CLASSIFICATION OF CROPSA. Crop Classifications According to Mode of Reproduction 5B. Crop Classifications According to Mode of Pollination 5C. Crop Classifications According to Life Span 5D. Crop Classifications According to Growth Habit 6E. Crop Classifications According to Leaf Retention 6F. Crop Classifications According to Ecological Adaptation or Habitat 6III. AGRICULTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTSA. Crop vs. Weed 8B. Agronomic vs. Horticultural Crops 8C. Agricultural Classifications Based on Primary Uses 10D. Special Purpose Classifications of Crops 20REFERENCES 23
 
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INTRODUCTION
Plants can be classified according to the following criteria: (1) botanical, (2) descriptive,and (3) agricultural. Botanical classification is based on the morphological characteristics ofplants as well as on their anatomy, physiology and DNA sequences. Descriptive classification isbased on the environmental adaptation, growth habit and other observable features. Inagriculture, plants can be broadly classified as either useful or unuseful. Those which are usefulare called
crops
while those which are not useful are called
weeds
.A common, well-defined system of crop classification is important in crop science andagriculture. Grouping of plants following established systems will simplify plant collectioninitiatives, research, breeding and specialized development efforts. Having standardizedbotanical names will also facilitate efficient communication, dissemination and retrieval ofscientific information. Additionally, the grouping of crops will indicate that these crops may havesimilar uses, adaptation, growth habits and methods of culture. Classifying crops by family islikewise important in intergeneric grafting as practiced with eggplant and tomato of thefamily
Solanaceae 
, and bottle gourd and other cucurbits with watermelon and melon(Leonardi and Romano, 2004). In disease control and prevention, such classification isimportant due to commonality of some diseases as in potato and tomato. Both are affected bythe fungal disease called late blight (Miles, undated). To students of crop science, a list ofcrops under the various agricultural classifications will be a useful reference in crop names andidentification and as a review guide. To the farm manager himself, the same list will offerinnumerable benefits in finding alternative crops for specific uses.Despite these advantages, however, classifications of crops in agriculture vary fromplace to place and from one country to another due to differences in the primary usage ofcertain crops, intensity of care, extent of cultivation and other criteria under consideration. Theconfusion due to the absence of a universal standard should be a major concern for thosewho are engaged in the dissemination of the basics of crop production.It is not uncommon to find crops having two or more classifications, usedsimultaneously, alternatively or sequentially. Peanut (groundnut) is a
legume seed crop 
, beinggrown for the harvesting of mature seeds. Such classification especially applies from the pointof view of the farmer. At the same time, it can be classified as an
oil seed crop 
or
industrial crop 
 if the seeds are intended to be processed primarily into vegetable oil. Thirdly, it can fall under
plantation crop 
if its cultivation is so extensive as to cover a large area and the operation ishandled under intensive care for the foreign market. According to Lantican (2001), sweetpotato and white potato are considered horticultural crops in the Philippines because thesecrops are grown under intensive care, but they are classified as agronomic crops in countrieswhere their production is highly mechanized and under extensive or in large scale culture.For comparison and further clarification, major crop classifications as defined by theFood and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations are herein provided verbatim.
 
Inits report entitled “Crops Statistics - Concepts, Definitions and Classifications”, FAO (2010)
 
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expressed its difficulty in the collection and presentation of statistical data due to differences inthe
concepts, definitions, coverage and classifications” of crops which are grown in differentcountries
.
These differences need to be settled to achieve the maximum possible degree ofinternational comparability,” it added.
 
I. BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS
The rules on the botanical classification of crop plants are laid down under theInternational Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) and the International Code ofNomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). However, like other international codes ofnomenclature, the ICBN has no legal status and is dependent on the voluntary acceptance of itsrules by authors, editors, and other users of plant names (Mcneill, et al., 2007).The ICBN was first formulated in 1935 by authorities in taxonomy but only after manyyears of debate to reconcile divergent rules, starting in 1867 in a congress that was held inParis. In 1905, botanists in Europe convened in Vienna to create a code of botanicalnomenclature. During this meeting it was decided that Carl Linnaeus'
Species Plantarum 
, whichwas published in 1753, would serve as the starting point for priority of botanical names. In1907, American botanists created a code of their own where they introduced type specimensand allowed
tautonyms 
(identical genus and species names), now only allowed in zoology.Finally, the European and American codes were merged into one international code of botanicalnomenclature in 1935 (Manktelow, undated).The ICBN is revised every 6 years, the last being called the Vienna Code. It wasadopted by the Seventeenth International Botanical Congress in Vienna, Austria in July 2005,100 years after the congress in the same place in 1905. The next congress will be in Melbourne,Australia, July 23-30, 2011. Salient provisions of the Code (Mcneill, et al., 2007) aresummarized as follows:Art. 3.1- The principal ranks of taxa in descending sequence are:1. kingdom (regnum)2. division or phylum (division, phylum)3. class (classis)4. order (ordo)5. family (familia)6. genus (genus)7. species (species)Art. 4.1 and 4.2- The secondary ranks in descending sequence are: tribe (tribus)between family and genus, section (section) and series (series) between genus and species,

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