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InclusionandeducationinEuropeancountries
INTMEASReportforcontract–2007‐2094/001TRA‐TRSPO
Final report: 2. Comparative conclusionsGeorge Muskens
LepelstraatAugust 2009
 
This is an independent report commissioned by the European Commission's Directorate-General for Education and Culture. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and donot necessarily represent the official position of the European Commission.The main author of this report isGeorge Muskens, research director at DOCA Bureaus andleader of the European research consortium INTMEAS that has carried out the present re-search assignment. Drafts of this report benefited from comments and advice from the con-sortium’s reference group members and from other experts in this field.Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.The electronic version of this report is available at:http://www.docabureaus.nl/INTMEAS.htmlAvailable INTMEAS-reports:1. Summary/sommaire/Zusamenfassung2. Comparative conclusions3. Discussion and recommendations4. France

5. Germany6. Hungary7. Italy8. The Netherlands9. Poland10. Slovenia11. Spain12. Sweden13. UK14. Experts and PLAINTMEAS Reference GroupGeorge Muskens, project leader Jaap Dronkers, expert adviser José Ramón Flecha, expert adviser Jill Bourne, expert adviser Danielle Zay, leader French research teamIngrid Gogolin, leader German research teamPál Tamás, leader Hungarian research teamFrancesca Gobbo, leader Italian research teamMicha
ł
Federowicz, leader Polish research teamAlbina Neçak Lük, Sonja Novak Lukanovic, leaders Slovenian research teamMariano Fernándes Enguita, leader Spanish research teamElena Dingu Kyrklund, leader Swedish research teamRae Condie, leader UK research team
 
I
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
1
The assignment concerning inclusion and education.....................................1
1.1
A
SSIGNMENT
....................................................................................................1
1.1.1
DOCA Bureaus.....................................................................................................1
1.1.2 
The reference group.............................................................................................1
1.1.3
The Expert Network..............................................................................................2 
1.1.4
Relevant Peer Learning Activities.........................................................................3
1.2
R
ESEARCH QUESTIONS AND METHODS
...............................................................3
1.3
T
EN COUNTRIES
:
SOME MORE
,
SOME LESS INCLUSIVE IN EDUCATION
..................5
2
General comparative conclusions? .................................................................10
3
Measures to halve early school leaving...........................................................12
3.1
T
HE QUALIFICATION CHALLENGE
......................................................................12
3.2
E
ARLY SCHOOL LEAVERS IN THE TEN COUNTRIES
,
SINCE
2000 .........................12
3.2.1
Indicators............................................................................................................1
3.2.2 
Insufficient urgency.............................................................................................13
3.3
M
EASURES TO REDUCE EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING
..............................................16
3.4
R
EFERENCES AND INTERESTING CASES
...........................................................17
3.5
C
OMPARATIVE CONCLUSIONS WITH REGARD TO EARLY SCHOOL LEAVERS
.........27
4
Priority education measures.............................................................................29
4.1
T
HE FRAME OF PRIORITY EDUCATION
...............................................................29
4.2
T
AILOR
-
MADE SUPPORT FOR INDIVIDUAL DISADVANTAGED PUPILS
.....................30
4.3
F
IGHTING DISCRIMINATION
...............................................................................34
4.4
R
EFERENCES TO PRIORITY EDUCATION
............................................................35
4.5
G
IVING FAIR AND BEST CHANCES
CASES
,
RECOMMENDATIONS
.......................38
4.6
N
ON
-
DISCRIMINATION MEASURES IN EDUCATION
..............................................46
4.7
C
OMPARATIVE CONCLUSION
:
WHAT PROOF
?....................................................51
5
Inclusive education measures..........................................................................53
5.1
I
NTERNATIONAL CONSENSUS ON
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION
’?................................53
5.2
R
EFERENCES TO INCLUSIVE EDUCATION
..........................................................55
5.3
M
EASURES IN THE FRAME OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION
........................................57
5.4
C
OMPARATIVE CONCLUSION
............................................................................62
6
Safe education measures..................................................................................64
6.1
T
HE SAFETY CHALLENGE
.................................................................................64
6.2
P
ROTECTIVE MEASURES
..................................................................................69
6.2.1
Youth protection measures.................................................................................69
6.2.2 
School rules........................................................................................................69
6.2.3
Physical protection measures.............................................................................70 
6.2.4
Virtual protection.................................................................................................71
6.2.5 
Inclusion and exclusion effects of protection measures.....................................71
6.3
M
EASURES FOR CREATING AWARENESS
..........................................................72
6.3.1
‘Civics’ in schools ...............................................................................................72 
6.3.2 
Measures as initiated and managed by external expert centres........................73
6.4
I
NDIVIDUAL MEASURES
....................................................................................74
6.5
G
ENERAL CONCLUSION
:
GOOD
,
BUT NO BEST MEASURES AND PRACTICES
.........74
7
Teacher support measures...............................................................................76
7.1
R
EFERENCES TO TEACHER SUPPORT MEASURES
.............................................76
7.2
T
EACHER QUALIFICATION MEASURES
...............................................................78
7.3
M
ORE TEACHERS AND SUPPORT STAFF FOR TEACHERS
....................................82
7.4
T
OWARDS THE DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
......................................86
Bibliography.............................................................................................................87
Attachment 1. Inclusion / exclusion indicators.....................................................94
Attachment 2. Methodological annex – Making sense of it...............................101

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