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Table Of Contents

The Pascal Language
TU RBO Pascal
Structure of This Manual
Typography
Syntax Descriptions
USING THE TURBO SYSTEM
1.1 .COM and .CMD files
1.2 BEFORE USE
1.3 Compiler Directive Defaults
1.4 Files On The Distribution Disk
Starting TURBO Pascal 1.5
1.5 Starting TURBO Pascal
1.6.1 IBM PC Screen Installation
Non-IBM PC Screen Installation 1.6.2
1.6.2 Non-IBM PC Screen Installation
1.6.3 Installation of Editing Commands
1.7.1 Logged Drive Selection
1 .7.1 Logged Drive Selection
1.7.5 Compile Command
1.8 The TURBO Editor
1.B.3 A Note on Control Characters
1.B.4 Before You Start: How To Get Out
1.B.5 Cursor Movement Commands
1.B.5.2 Extended Movement Commands
1.8.6 Insert and Delete Commands
1.8.6.2 Simple Insert/Delete Commands
1.8.7 Block Commands
1.B.B Miscellaneous Editing Commands
1.9 The TURBO editor vs. WordStar
1.9.1 Cursor Movement
1.9.2 Mark Single Word
End Edit 1.9.3
1.9.3 End Edit
1 .9.4 Line Restore
1.9.5 Tabulator
1.9.6 Auto Indentation
BASIC LANGUAGE ELEMENTS 2
2. BASIC LANGUAGE ELEMENTS
2.1 Basic Symbols
2.2 Reserved Words
BASIC LANGUAGE ELEMENTS 37
2.3 Standard Identifiers
Delimiters 2.4
2.4 Delimiters
2.5 Program lines
3.1 Integer
3.4 Boolean
3.5 Char
4. USER DEFINED LANGUAGE ELEMENTS
4.1 Identifiers
4.2 Numbers
4.3 Strings
Control Characters 4.3.1
4.3.1 Control Characters
4.4 Comments
4.5 Compiler Directi,:,es
PROGRAM HEADING AND PROGRAM BLOCK 5
S. PROGRAM HEADING AND PROGRAM BLOCK
S.1 Program Heading
S.2 Declaration Part
PROGRAM HEADING AND PROGRAM BLOCK 47
5.2.1 Label Declaration Part
5.2.2 Constant Definition Part
5.2.3 Type Definition Part
5.2.4 Variable Declaration Part
5.2.5 Procedure and Function Declaration Part
5.3 Statement Part
EXPRESSIONS 6
6. EXPRESSDONS
6.1 Operators
6.1.1 Unary Minus
6.1.2 Not Operator
6.1.3 Multiplying Operators
6.1.4 Adding Operators
6.2 Function Designators
6.2 F unction Designators
STATEMENTS 7
7.1 Simple Statements
STATEMENTS 55
7.1.2 Procedure Statement
Structured Statements 7.2
7.2 Structured Statements
7.2.2 Conditional Statements
7.2.3 Repetitive Statements
SCALAR AND SUBRANGE TYPES 8
8. SCALAR AND SUBRANGE TYPES
8.1 Scalar Type
SCALAR AND SUBRANGE TYPES 63
8.2 Subrange Type
8.3 Type Conversion
8.4 Range Checking
STRING TYPE 9
9. STRING TYPE
9.1 String Type Definition
9.2 String Expressions
9.3 String Assignment
String Procedures 9.4
9.4 String Procedures
String Functions 9.5
9.5 String Functions
9.5.1 Copy
9.5.3 Length
9.5.4 Pos
Strings and Characters 9.6
9.6 Strings and Characters
10.1 Array Definition
10.2 Multidimensional Arrays
10.3 Character Arrays
10.4 Predefined Arrays
11.1 Record Definition
With Statement 11.2
11 .2 With Statement
11.3 Variant Records
12.1 Set Type Definition
12.2 Set Expressions
12.2.1 S~t Constructors
Set Operators 12.2.2
12.2.2 Set Operators
12.3 Set Assignments
13.1 Unstructured Typed Constants
13.2 Structured Typed Constants
13.2.1 Array Constants
Multidimensional Array Constants 13.2.2
13.2.2 Multidimensional Array Constants
13.2.3 Record Constants
13.2.4 Set Constants
14.1 File Type Definition
14.2 Operations on Files
14.2.9 Erase
14.2.10 Rename
File Standard Functions 14.3
14.3 File Standard Functions
14.3.1 EOF
14.4 Using Files
14.5 Text Files
14.5.2 Logical Devices
14.5.3 Standard Rles
14.6 Text File Input and Output
14.6.1 Read Procedure
14.6.2 Readln Procedure
Write Procedure 14.6.3
14.6.3 Write Procedure
Writeln Procedure 14.6.4
14.6.4 Writeln Procedure
14.7 Untyped Files
14.7.1 BlockRead / BlockWrite
14.8 I/O checking
15.1 Defining a Pointer Variable
15.2 Allocating Variables (New)
15.3 Mark and Release
15.4 Using Pointers
Space Allocation 15.5
15.5 Space Allocation
PROCEDURES AND FUNCTIONS 16
16. PROCEDURES AND FUNCTIONS
16.1 Parameters
PROCEDURES AND FUNCTIONS 121
Relaxations on Parameter Type Checking 16.1.1
16.1.1 Relaxations on Parameter Type Checking
16.1.2· Untyped Variable Parameters
Procedures 16.2
16.2 Procedures
16.2.1 Procedure Declaration
Standard Procedures 16.2.2
16.2.2 Standard Procedures
16.2.2.1 ClrEol
16.2.2.5 Delay
16.2.2.8 GotoXY
16.2.2.9 LowVideo
16.2.2.10 Norm Video
A. CP/M-SO
A.1 compiler Options
A.T.T Memory / Com file / cHn-file
A.1A Find Runtime Error
A.2 Standard Identifiers
A.3 Absolute Variables
A.4 Addr Function
A.S Predefined Arrays
A.6 Array Subscript Optimization
A.7 With Statements
A.8 Pointer Related Items
Pointers and Integers A.B.2
A.9 External Subprograms
A.10 Chain and Execute
A.11 In-line Machine Code
A.12 CP/M Function Calls
Internal Data Formats A.15
A.15.2.3.2 Text Files
A.15.3 Parameters
A.15.3.1 Variable Parameters
A.15.3.2 Value Parameters
A.1S.3.2.1 Scalars
A.15.3.2.3 Strings
A.1S.3.2.3 Strings
Arrays and Records A.15.3.2.6
A.1S.3.2.6 Arrays and Records
A.15.4 Function Results
A.16 Memory Management
A.16.1.1 Compilation in Memory
A.16.1.2 Compilation To Disk
A.16.2 The Heap and The Stacks
8.1.1.4 Minimum Free Dynamic Memory
B.1.1.5 Maximum Free Dynamic Memory
8.1.2 Standard Identifiers
B.1.4 Absolute Address Functions
B.l.8 External Subprograms
8.1.9 Chain and Execute
B.1.10 In -line Machine Code
B.1.11 Interrupt Handling
B.1.11.1 Intr procedure
Internal Data Formats 8.1.12
8.1.12 Internal Data Formats
8.1.12.1.1 Scalars
B.1.12.1.2 Reals
8.1.12.1.2 Reals
8.1.12.1.3 Strings
8.1.12.1.4 Sets
8.1.12.1.5 Pointers
8.1.12.2 Data Structures
B.1.12.2.1 Arrays
8.1.12.2.1 Arrays
8.1.12.2.2 Records
8.1.12.2.3 Disk Files
B.1.12.2.4 Text Files
8.1.12.3 Parameters
8.1.12.3.1 Variable Parameters
8.1.12.3.2 Value Parameters
Scalars 8.1.12.3.2.1
B.1.12.3.2.1 Scalars
B.1.12.3.2.2 Reals
B.1.12.3.2.3 Strings
B.1 .12.3.2.4 Sets
B.1.12.3.2.5 Pointers
B .1.12.3.2.6 Arrays and.Records
B.1 .1 2.4 Function Results
8.1.12.4 Function Results
B.2.6.3 Flush Procedure
The CP/M-86 Implementation B.3
B.3 The CP/M -86 Implementation
8.3.1 Standard Identifiers
8.3.2 Function Calls
8.3.3 User Written I/O Drivers
8.3.5 Random Access Rles
C.1 Input/Output Procedures and Functions
C.2 Arithmetic Functions
C.3 Scalar Functions
C.4 Transfer Functions
String Procedures and Functions
C.s String Procedures and Functions
C.6 File handling routines
SUMMARY OF COMPILER DIRECTIVES E
E. SUMMARY OF COMPILER DIRECTIVES
SUMMARY OF COMPILER DIRECTIVES 213
E.1 Common Compiler Directives
E.1.2 C -Control Sand C
E.1.3 I -I/O Error Handling
E.2 CP/M-BO Compiler Directives
E.2.1 A -Absolute Code
E.2.2 W -Nesting of With Statements
E.2.3 X -Array Optimization
K -Stack Checking E.3.1
E.3 CP/M-a6/ MS-DOS / PC-DOS Compiler Directives
£.3.1 K -Stack Checking
TURBO Vs. STANDARD PASCAL F
F. TURBO VS. STANDARD PASCAL
F.2 Recursion
FA Goto Statements
F.4 Goto Statements
F.S Page Procedure
F.S Packed Variables
F.7 Procedural Parameters
COMPILER ERROR MESSA GES G
G. COMPILER ERROR MESSAGIES
RUN-TIME ERROR MESSAGES H
H. RUN-TIME ERROR MESSAGES
RUN-TIME ERROR MESSAGES 225
I/O ERROR MESSAGES
TRANSLATING ERROR MESSAGES J
J. TRANSLATING ERROR MESSAGES
J.1 Error Message File Usting
J.1 Error Message File Listing
K. TURBO SYNTAX
ASCII TABLE L
L. ASCII TABLE
M. HELP!! !
N.2 Non-IBM PC Installation
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Turbo_Pascal_Reference_Manual_Feb84

Turbo_Pascal_Reference_Manual_Feb84

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