Donald in Mathmagic Land - Page 3
7. The video spans three millennia and shows mathematical achievements from ancient tomodern times. What are some inventions that exist today that weren’t shown in the video?Name some ways that math is used in these achievements.
Pythagoreans were students of the mathematical, philosophical, and religious school started byPythagoras (c. 580 B.C. – c. 500 B.C.). Some historians think that Pythagorean students wereexpected to listen but not contribute during their first five years at school, and that they were tocredit any mathematical discovery to the school or to Pythagoras.
The Golden Section
The lines of a pentagram can be divided into four different lengths. Lines #1 and #2 exactly equalline #3. This partition is a Golden Section. And lines #2 and #3 exactly equal line #4. Thispartition is also a Golden Section. The ratio of the lengths of the two Golden Sections is (squareroot of 5 + 1)/2, approximately 1.618. When this ratio is used to create the length and width of arectangle, the result is called a Golden Rectangle.
The Golden Rectangle
A Golden Rectangle is a rectangle whose ratio of length to width is approximately 8 to 5, or 1.618. These proportions were greatly admired by the Greeks, and Golden Rectangles are foundin classical architecture and art.
The Magic Spiral
A magic spiral isn’t magic at all. It is a spiral that repeats theproportions of the Golden Sections of a Golden Rectangle intoinfinity. Magic spirals can be seen in many of nature’s spirals,such as the shell of the sea snail.
Porch of the Caryatids
The Caryatids are six female statues supporting the south porchroof of the Erechtheum temple. The temple, located on the Acropolis in Athens, Greece, was builtbetween 420 B.C. to 406 B.C. The Caryatids that adorn the temple today are copies, but four of the six originals are housed in the Acropolis Museum.
Venus de Milo
This famous ancient Greek sculpture depicts the goddess Venus. The sculpture was named for theGreek island of Melos where it was discovered in 1820 as it was about to be crushed into mortar.The sculpture was restored, but its broken arms were lost and never replaced. The sculpture isnow housed in the Louvre Museum in Paris, France.
Cathedral of Notre Dame of Paris
The Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris, France, is regarded as the greatest masterpiece of Gothicarchitecture. It was constructed between 1163 and 1250 and was dedicated to Mary, the Motherof Jesus (“Notre Dame” means “Our Lady” in French). It was restored after the FrenchRevolution ended in 1799.