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Introduction
1.1 Purpose and motivation
1.1.1 Complexity theory
1.1.2 Computability theory
1.1.3 Automata theory
1.1.4 This course
1.2 Mathematical preliminaries
1.3 Proof techniques
1.3.1 Direct proofs
1.3.2 Constructive proofs
1.3.3 Nonconstructive proofs
1.3.7 More examples of proofs
2.1 An example: Controling a toll gate
2.2 Deterministic ﬁnite automata
2.2.1 An example of a ﬁnite automaton
2.2.2 Another example of a ﬁnite automaton
2.3 Regular operations
2.4 Nondeterministic ﬁnite automata
2.4.1 A ﬁrst example
2.4.2 A second example
2.4.3 A third example
2.4.4 Deﬁnition of nondeterministic ﬁnite automaton
2.5 Equivalence of DFAs and NFAs
2.5.1 An example
2.6 Closure under the regular operations
2.7 Regular expressions
2.8.1 Every regular expression describes a regular lan-
2.8.2 Converting a DFA to a regular expression
2.9 The pumping lemma and nonregular lan-
2.9.1 Applications of the pumping lemma
2.10 Higman’s Theorem
2.10.1 Dickson’s Theorem
2.10.2 Proof of Higman’s Theorem
Exercises
Context-Free Languages
3.1 Context-free grammars
3.2 Examples of context-free grammars
3.2.1 Properly nested parentheses
3.2.2 A context-free grammar for a nonregular lan-
3.2.4 A context-free grammar that veriﬁes addition
3.3 Regular languages are context-free
3.3.1 An example
3.4 Chomsky normal form
3.4.1 An example
3.5 Pushdown automata
3.6 Examples of pushdown automata
3.6.1 Properly nested parentheses
3.6.2 Strings of the form 0n
3.6.3 Strings with b in the middle
3.8.2 Applications of the pumping lemma
4.1 Deﬁnition of a Turing machine
4.2 Examples of Turing machines
4.2.1 Accepting palindromes using one tape
4.2.2 Accepting palindromes using two tapes
4.3 Multi-tape Turing machines
4.4 The Church-Turing Thesis
5.1 Decidability and enumerability
5.2 Examples
5.2.1 Hilbert’s problem
5.2.3 The language ANFA
5.2.4 The language ACFG
5.2.5 The language ATM
5.3 Most languages are not enumerable
5.3.1 Countable sets
5.3.2 The set of enumerable languages is countable
5.3.3 The set of all languages is not countable
5.3.4 There are languages that are not enumerable
5.4 The Halting Problem
5.5 The language ATM is undecidable
Complexity Theory
6.1 The running time of algorithms
6.2 The complexity class P
6.2.1 Some examples
6.3 The complexity class NP
6.3.1 P is contained in NP
6.3.2 Deciding NP-languages in exponential time
6.4 Non-deterministic algorithms
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Theory of Computation

# Theory of Computation

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07/07/2013

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