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A Compressed Sensing Approach to NBI Cancellation in Mobile OFDM Systems

A Compressed Sensing Approach to NBI Cancellation in Mobile OFDM Systems

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1
A Compressive Sensing Approach to NBICancellation in Mobile OFDM Systems
Ahmad Gomaa,
Student Member, IEEE 
, and Naofal Al-Dhahir,
Fellow, IEEE 
The University of Texas at Dallas, USA
Abstract
—We propose a novel algorithm based on compres-sive sensing (CS) theory to estimate narrow band interfer-ence (NBI) signals experiencing time-varying frequency-selectivefading channels in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM) systems. In addition, we investigate the case of asyn-chronous jamming where there is a frequency offset between theNBI and desired signals. Furthermore, we propose a reduced-complexity implementation for our proposed algorithm withnegligible performance loss. Finally, we show that our proposedapproach can be applied to both cyclic-prefix and zero-paddingOFDM systems. Simulation results show the effectiveness of ourproposed algorithm in mitigating NBI.
I. I
NTRODUCTION
Narrow-band interference (NBI) degrades the performanceof various wireline and wireless communications systems em-ploying orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM).For example, Non-intentional NBI impairs the performanceof multi-band (MB) OFDM ultra wide bandwidth (UWB)systems [1] where the other licensed systems operating inthe same band cause interference to the UWB system inparts of the operating bandwidth. Wireless local area networks(WLANs), e.g. 802.11g/n, suffer from NBI generated by Blue-tooth devices operating in the same band [2]. In addition, NBIimpairs wired systems such as Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL)and power line communications (PLC) as radio frequencyinterference (RFI) from AM and amateur radio. Moreover,intentional NBI (jamming) may affect wireless networks usedin military applications. In this paper, we use the terms NBIand jammer interchangeably.The problem of NBI mitigation for OFDM is not wellinvestigated in the literature especially for MIMO systems, andonly few techniques have been reported. One of the techniquesis proposed in [3] where a prediction error filter (PEF) is usedto whiten the narrow-band spectrum of the NBI. This methodassumes that the NBI is an auto-regressive (AR) process;otherwise the PEF length must be very long to whiten the NBIspectrum. The PEF is also used in [4] as an erasure insertionmechanism that localizes the erasures to the tones surroundingthe interference without affecting the remaining tones. In [3],[4], only a single-tone NBI is assumed. However, in this paper,we consider NBI affecting several OFDM subcarriers. In [5],the first subcarrier is assumed to be interference free andthe error term between the received and detected signals of the first subcarrier is used to predict the error term in thenext subcarrier. A major drawback of this method is thaterrors in the interference estimate of one tone propagate to
This work is supported by a gift from RIM Inc.
the other tones. This technique was generalized in [6] usingsoft decisions of the OFDM symbols from the decoding unit.Recently, compressive sensing (CS) theory [7], [8] has beenapplied to reconstruct a sparse vector from insufficient noisymeasurements. CS theory was first proposed in [9] to estimatethe NBI signal exploiting its inherent sparsity in the frequency-domain (FD). However, the NBI signal was assumed tobe unfaded and synchronous with the desired signal at thereceiver. Furthermore, only one NBI signal was assumed. Inthis paper, we relax these assumptions and show that CS theorycan still be applied to estimate the jammer effectively and wepropose a reduced-complexity implementation. In [9], the CS-based approach was proposed for zero-padded (ZP) OFDM;however, in this paper we show that the approach can beextended to cyclic-prefix (CP) OFDM as well. The rest of thispaper is organized as follows. In the next section, we providea review of CS theory. For completeness, we give a reviewof the CS-based approach for NBI estimation in Section III.Section IV shows how the CS-based approach can be appliedto mobile and asynchronous jammers. A reduced-complexityimplementation for the CS-based approach is proposed inSection V. The extension to CP-OFDM systems is presentedin Section VI. Finally, simulation results and conclusionsare given in Sections VII and VIII, respectively.
Notations
:Unless otherwise stated, lower and upper case bold lettersdenote vectors and matrices, respectively. The matrices
F
and
I
denote the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) matrix andthe identity matrix, respectively, and their subscripts denotetheirs sizes. The matrix
0
m
×
n
denotes the all-zero matrix of size
m
×
n
. Also,
( )
,
( )
, and
( )
1
denote the matrixcomplex-conjugate transpose, the complex conjugate, and thematrix inverse operations, respectively. The
j
th
element in
a
is denoted by
a
(
j
)
.II. C
OMPRESSIVE
S
ENSING
B
ACKGROUND
CS theory [7], [8] asserts that we can recover a sparse vector
x
C
from a measurement vector
y
C
where
.In other words, the exact solution of the under-determinedsystem of equations
y
=
A
x
+
z
can be computed where
A
denotes the
×
measurement matrix and
z
C
is a zero-mean random noise vector with covariance matrix
C
z
(
zz
)
. The word ”sparse” means that
x
contains fewnonzero elements. The sparse vector
x
is recovered by solvingthe following
l
1
-norm constrained minimization problem [10]
min
˜
x
C
N
˜
x
1
subject to
y
A
˜
x
2
(1)
 
2
where
.
1
and
.
2
denote the
l
1
-norm and the
l
2
-norm,respectively, and
is chosen such that it bounds the amountof noise in the measurements. In fact, the convex optimizationproblem in (1) is a second-order cone program and can besolved efficiently [11]. After solving (1), the support of 
x
isestimated with
=
{
k
: ˜
x
k
= 0
}
which contains the estimatedindices of the nonzero elements in
x
. Then,
x
can be writtenas
x
=
S
d
where
d
is a vector containing the values of thenonzero elements of 
x
. In addition,
S
is called the selectionmatrix whose elements are all zeros except for a single ’
1
ineach column, and the indices of the rows containing these ’
1
’sare included in
. We can write
y
as
y
=
AS
d
+
z
, and usethe weighted least squares (WLS) estimation technique [12]to estimate
d
as follows
˜
d
=
S
A
C
1
z
AS
1
S
A
C
1
z
y
(2)III. NBI E
STIMATION USING
CS
THEORY
As will be justified later, our proposed techniques utilizethe guard sequences between successive OFDM blocks. Toavoid inter-block interference (IBI), we use zero padding asthe guard sequence instead of a cyclic prefix [13]. Denotingthe guard sequence length by
ν 
and the data length by
, thereceived OFDM symbol in ZP-OFDM is given by
y
=
H
F
0
×
ν
 
 
 
:=
F
zp
X
+
z
+
j
(3)where
H
is the
×
Circulant channel matrix where
=
+
ν 
,
X
is the frequency-domain (FD) data vector,
z
is the time-domain (TD) noise vector,
j
is the TD NBI signal,and
F
zp
is called the ZP transmission matrix. Note that
H
is considered Circulant thanks to the all-zero matrix
0
×
ν
in
F
zp
[13]. The TD NBI vector
j
can be expressed as
j
=
F
J
where
J
is its FD vector whose elements are modeled as
(
k
) =
d
k
,
k
t
0
,
otherwise(4)where
d
k
C
denotes the NBI amplitude at the
k
-thsubcarrier, and
and
t
denote the first and last indices(subcarriers) of NBI, respectively. The NBI width is denotedby
r
t
+ 1
. Converting
y
into FD yields
Y
=
F
y
=
ΛV
 
:=˜
Λ
X
+
Z
+
J
(5)where
V
F
F
zp
,
Z
F
z
, and
Λ
F
HF
is adiagonal matrix whose diagonal is the
-point discrete Fouriertransform (DFT) of the first column of 
H
. Note that
˜
Λ
is atall matrix of size
×
as defined in (5). Our goal is toestimate the NBI frequency support (NBI subcarrier indices
through
t
) and the NBI amplitudes
d
through
d
t
. Note that
J
can be considered as a sparse signal since it represents a
narrow
-band interference. Hence,
J
can be recovered from
Y
using CS theory but
X
and
Z
are unknown so they are modeledas noise. To reduce the noise level, we cancel the unknowndata term in (5). Assuming knowledge
1
of 
Λ
and, hence,
˜
Λ
at the receiver, we multiply
Y
by
W
such that
W
˜
Λ
=
0
. To
1
Channel estimation is investigated in [14]
this end,
W
is designed to be the projection matrix on the leftnull-subspace of 
˜
Λ
as follows
2
W
=
I
˜
Λ
˜
Λ
(6)where
˜
Λ
˜
Λ
˜
Λ
1
˜
Λ
is the pseudo-inverse matrix [15].Since
˜
Λ
is a
tall
matrix, it has a nontrivial (i.e. non-zero) leftnull-subspace. Now, it is clear that we keep the received guardsequences to make
˜
Λ
a tall matrix. Multiplying
Y
by
W
, weget
Y
=
W
Y
=
W
J
+
W
Z
 
:=˜
Z
.
(7)Then, the convex program in (1) is solved to estimate the NBIlocations where
W
is the measurement matrix. Note that
W
is a rank-
ν 
matrix. Hence, the linear system in (7) is under-determined. Next, WLS is used to estimate the NBI amplitudesbefore cancelling the NBI signal from
Y
.IV. P
RACTICAL
NBI
MODELS
A. Mobile Jamme
In this section, we consider the case where the NBI sourceis mobile and its channel is dispersive. Hence, the NBI signalexperiences a fast frequency-selective (FS) fading channel.Denoting the channel matrix of the jammer by
H
J
, the receivedfaded NBI signal can be expressed as
j
M
=
H
J
j
=
F
F
H
J
F
 
 
 
:=
Λ
J
J
=
F
Λ
J
J
 
:=
J
M
F
J
M
(8)where
j
F
J
is the transmitted NBI signal. Accordingto [16],
Λ
J
can be approximated as a banded matrix with
2
D
+ 1
main diagonals. When multiplied by
J
,
Λ
J
causesthe FD NBI signal to spill over
D
adjacent subcarriers fromeach side where
D
depends on the Doppler frequency of the jammer. Hence, higher jammer mobility results in largerjammer spectral width but
J
M
can still be considered sparse.So, CS theory can still be used to recover
J
M
as before.Note that we follow this approach since we do not have anyknowledge about
H
J
because we can not ask the jammer tosend us pilots to estimate its channel!
B. Asynchronous Jammer 
Now, we discuss the important case where the jammer isnot synchronous with the desired the signal; i.e. there is somefrequency offset between the jammer and the desired signal atthe receiver. In this case, the
n
th
element of the received TDNBI vector
j
offset
is given by
j
offset
(
n
) =
t
k
=
d
k
e
i
2
π
(
k
+
α
)
n
(9)where
i
1
and the frequency offset is represented by
α
which is uniformly distributed over the interval
12
,
12
. The
2
Note that if 
P
projects on the column subspace, then
I
P
projects onits orthogonal complement which is the left null-subspace.
 
3
interference component on the
l
th
subcarrier in FD can thenbe written as
offset
(
l
) =
t
k
=
d
k
1
e
i
2
πα
1
e
i
2
π
(
k
l
+
α
)
.
(10)When
α
= 0
, we get the expression in (4). Hence, the effectof the frequency offset is jammer spectral spreading. To seethe spreading in matrix notation, we express
j
offset
as
j
offset
=
H
offset
j
=
H
offset
F
J
(11)where
H
offset
is a diagonal matrix with
H
offset
(
n,n
) =
e
i
2
παn
,
n
= 0
,
1
,..,P 
1
. Note that
H
offset
can be considered asthe time-varying channel matrix
H
J
defined in Section IV-Abut with a single channel tap. Hence,
Λ
offset
F
H
offset
F
is a Circulant banded matrix and the number of its main(significant) diagonals depends on
α
. Then,
j
offset
=
F
Λ
offset
J
  
 
 
:=
J
offset
F
J
offset
(12)Since
Λ
offset
is banded,
J
offset
becomes a spread version of 
J
. Considering
J
offset
as an approximately sparse vector, wecan use the CS-based approach to estimate it as done inSection IV-A for the case of mobile jammers. This techniqueis labelled as ”without estimating
α
” in Section VII. However,if 
Λ
offset
is known at the receiver, then the CS approach canbe applied to recover
J
instead of 
J
offset
. This is achieved byabsorbing
Λ
offset
into the measurement matrix. To show this,we write
Y
as
Y
=
W
Y
=
W
J
offset
+
W
Z
=
offset
J
+
W
Z
.
(13)If 
Λ
offset
is not known at the receiver, then we apply CS theoryto estimate
J
offset
. In this case, the measurement matrix is
W
.On the other hand, if 
Λ
offset
is known at the receiver, then weapply CS theory to estimate
J
. In this case, the measurementmatrix is
offset
. Since
J
is exactly sparse unlike
J
offset
,the solution of the
l
1
-norm constrained minimization problemfor
J
will be more accurate than that for
J
offset
. This isbecause CS-based algorithms are designed for sparse vectors.Consequently, better NBI estimation and cancellation can beachieved if 
Λ
offset
is known at the receiver. Note that the matrix
Λ
offset
is completely determined by
α
. Hence, we propose thefollowing technique to estimate
α
for single-tone jammers andbelieve that the extension to multiple-tone jammers is possible.First, we apply CS theory to get an initial estimate of 
J
offset
.Since this estimate is sparse, we extract its largest
s
nonzeroelements. These extracted elements can be expressed as
ˆ
offset
(
l
n
) =
d
k
1
e
i
2
πα
/P 
1
e
i
2
π
(
k
l
n
+
α
)
+
e
(
l
n
)
,
1
n
s
(14)where
e
(
l
n
)
is some error term at the
(
l
n
)
th
element,
d
k
and
k
denote the amplitude and the location of the singlejamming tone, respectively. The idea is to estimate
α
from
{
ˆ
offset
(
l
n
)
,n
= 1
,
2
,..,s
}
using the non-linear least squaresestimation technique [12] because
ˆ
offset
(
l
n
)
is a non-linearfunction of 
α
. The estimate of 
α
, denoted by
ˆ
α
, is chosen tomaximize the following cost function
ζ 
(
α
) =
sn
=1
ˆ
offset
(
l
n
)(
1
e
i
2
πα
)
1
e
i
2
π
(
k
ln
+
α
)
2
(1
e
i
2
πα
)
1
e
i
2
π
(
k
ln
+
α
)
2
(15)where
|
.
|
denotes the absolute value. This maximization canbe implemented using grid search over possible values of 
α
as follows. We quantize the interval
12
,
12
into
q
levels,substitute each level for
α
in
ζ 
(
α
)
, and set
ˆ
α
to the levelthat maximizes the cost function. Note that
ζ 
(
α
)
depends on
k
which is the location of the jammer tone. As an estimateof 
k
, we use
ˆ
k
=
arg
max
n
ˆ
offset
(
l
n
)
. Using
ˆ
α
, we forman estimate for
Λ
offset
, denoted by
ˆ
Λ
offset
. Then, we formthe measurement matrix as
offset
and solve the
l
1
-normconstrained minimization problem to get an estimate for thefrequency support of 
J
. If this estimate differs from
ˆ
k
, we re-estimate
α
using the new estimate of 
k
. This refined estimateof 
α
is only used to re-calculate
ˆ
Λ
offset
and the measurementmatrix. Finally, we perform the WLS step to estimate theamplitude of the jammer and output the estimate of 
J
denotedby
ˆ
J
. The new estimate for
J
offset
is given by
˜
J
offset
=ˆ
Λ
offset
ˆ
J
.
(16)Next,
J
offset
is cancelled from the received signal prior to thedetection and decoding steps. This technique is labelled as”with estimating
α
” in Section VII. In [14], we use anothertechnique to deal with asynchronous jammers,
viz.
we usereceiver windowing to spectrally contain the jammer.V. A
LTERNATIVE
N
ULLING
M
ETHOD
In Section III, we set
W
to be the projection matrix onto theleft null-subspace of 
˜
Λ
to null out (cancel) the unknown dataterm. However, computing
W
requires the inversion of a
×
matrix which is computationally intense although the diagonalstructure of 
Λ
can be utilized to reduce the complexity. In thissection, we propose a simpler method to null out the unknowndata term where we utilize the tall structure of 
F
zp
. First, wemultiply
Y
by
G
1
F
Λ
1
to get
Y
1
=
G
1
Y
=
F
zp
X
+
G
1
Z
+
G
1
J
(17)where
Λ
1
is easily computed since
Λ
is diagonal and themultiplication by
F
is efficiently implemented using theinverse FFT operation. Recalling the structure of 
F
zp
, wesimply multiply
Y
1
by
G
2
0
ν
×
I
ν
to null out theunknown data term as follows
Y
2
=
G
2
Y
1
=
G
2
G
1
 
 
  
A
J
+
G
2
G
1
Z
 
 
 
˜
Z
(18)Note that the multiplication by
G
2
is equivalent to extract-ing the last
ν 
elements of the vector
Y
1
. Next, we applythe CS-based technique to (18) to estimate
J
. However, thedisadvantage of this nulling scheme is the multiplication by
Λ
1
which may amplify the noise if the channel frequency

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