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Sifat Periodik Unsur

Sifat Periodik Unsur

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Published by Nanda Hadi Gustian

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Published by: Nanda Hadi Gustian on Mar 25, 2011
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11/27/2012

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Sifat Periodik Unsur
Pengelompokkan unsur-unsur dalam sistem periodik modern menghasilkangolongan yang memuat unsur-unsur dengan sifat yang mirip, dan periode dimanaterjadi pengulangan sifat secara berkala atau periodik. Sifat-sifat unsur yang berhubungan dengan letak unsur dalam tabel periodik disebut sifat periodik. Sifat periodik unsur dibedakan menjadi:
Sifat atomik yakni sifat yang berhubungan langsung dengan struktur atomnya.Sifat ini mencakup:
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Jari-jari atom
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Energi ionisasi
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Afinitas elektron
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Elektronegatifan (elektronegativitas)
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Bilangan oksidasi
Sifat bulk/fisis yakni sifat yang tidak hanya ditentukan oleh struktur atomnya,tetapi juga bagaimana atom-atom unsur (atau molekul-molekul unsur) salingterikat. Sifat ini mencakup:
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Kerapatan
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Titik leleh dan perubahan kalor leleh
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Titik didih dan perubahan kalor penguapan
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Daya hantar listrik dan panas
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Electrical and thermal conductivities
Sifat kimia/reaktivitas (Akan dibahas di Kelas XII)
Jelajah Kimia
Simak situs berikut: http://www.webelement.org. Situ ini menyajikan data dari unsur-unsur dalam tabel periodik, yang meliputi titik didih, titik leleh, massa atom, bilangan oksidasi, dan lainnya.
 
Tahukah Kamu?
Ada beda pendapat tentang posisi
57
La dan
89
Ac di golongan IIIB terkait dengankonfigurasi elektron dan sifatnya. Berdasarkan konfigurasi elektronnya, La dan Acseharusnya ada di golongan IIIB; Namun, berdasarkan kemiripan sifat, La dan Aclebih sesuai diseri lantanida dan aktinida. Posisi keduanya diganti dengan unsur 
71
Ludan
103
Lr. (Konfigurasi elektron akan dibahas di Kelas XI).Sifat periodik yang akan dibahas disini adalah sifat atomik meliputi jari-jari atom,energi ionisasi, afinitas elektron, keelektronegatifan; serta titik leleh dan titik didih.
1. Jari-jari Atom
Jari-jari atom adalah jarak dari inti atom sampai kulit terluar. Nilai jari-jariatom dari unsur-unsur dalam sistem periodik dapat disimak pada Gambar 3.17 di bawah ini.
 
From the graph, you may notice certain trends in atomic radii of elementswithin periods and groups. A better picture can be seen from the Figure 3.18 below.The trends in atomic radius are as follows:
The atomic radius decreases across a period This is because the charge of thenucleus becomes more positive while, despite the increasing number of electrons, the valence electrons still occupy the same shell. This strengthens theattracting force between the nucleus and the electrons, thus reducing atomicradius.
The atomic radius increases down a group. This is because although the chargeof the nucleus becomes more positive, the number of shells increases. Thisweakens the attracting force between the nucleus and the electrons, thusincreasing the atomic radius.
Chem in-Depth
Atoms actually do not have definite dimensions, like balls. The modern atomic theorystates that the position of electrons around the nucleus is a probability (This conceptwill be discussed in Grade Xl). Because of this, scientists define atomic radius as half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element. There are 3 typesof atomic radius:
Covalent radius, which is half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element that are covalently bonded. (See Covalent Bond in Chapter 4)
Metallic radius, which is half the distance between two closest nuclei in metalcrystal. (See Metal Bond in Chapter 4)
Van der Waals radius, which is half the distance between the nuclei of twoatoms that are not chemically bonded.As an illustration, the atomic radii of most nonmetals are of covalent type while thoseof metals are of metallic type.

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