Shannon is saving tobuy a new computer, whichcosts $3299. Sofar he has $449 in the bankand wants to make regulardeposits each month until hereaches his target of $3299. If he wants to buy thecomputer in8 months’ time, how muchdoes he need to save as amonthly deposit?One way of solving this problemis to write andsolve an equation for thissituation with a pronumeralrepresenting the unknown.This chapter looks atsolving different equationsand how this skill can beused to solve real-lifeproblems.

6

5

5

eTHINKING

Equations

236

M a t h s Q u e s t 8 f o r V i c t o r i a

areyou

Are you ready?

Try the questions below. If you have difﬁculty with any of them, extra help can beobtained by completing the matchingSkillSHEET. Either click on theSkillSHEETicon
next to the question on the

Maths Quest 8

CD-ROM or ask your teacher for a copy.

Flow charts

1

Complete these ﬂow charts to ﬁnd the output number.

a b

Inverse operations

2

Write the inverse operation for each of the following.

a

×

2

b

+

8

c

−

17

d

÷ −

5

Solving equations by backtracking

3

Solve each of the following equations by ﬁrst completing the ﬂow charts below. Remember toshow the operations needed to backtrack to

x

.

a

7(

x

−

4)

=

35

b

=

3

Combining like terms

4

Simplify each of the following expressions by combining like terms.

a

7

v

+

3

+

3

v

+

4

b

6

c

+

15

−

5

c

−

8

Expanding expressions containing brackets

5

Expand each of the following expressions containing brackets.

a

2(3

x

+

5)

b

−

7(

m

−

1)

Checking solutions by substitution

6

For each equation below there is a solution given. Is the solution correct?

a

5

x

−

7

=

2

x

+

2

x

=

3

b

=

2

x

−

7

x

=

5

Writing equations from worded statements

7

Write an equation for each of the following statements, using

x

to represent the unknown number.

a

When 2 is added to a certain number, the result is 9.

b

Eight times a certain number is 40.

c

When 11 is subtracted from a certain number, the result is 3.

d

Dividing a certain number by 6 gives a result of 2.

Showing inequations on a number line

8

Indicate each of the following on a number line.

a

x

≥

2

b

x

< 5

c

x

≤

0

d

x

>

−

1

6.1

–9

×

54

÷

4+35

6.26.4

x

9+5------------

x

35

x –

4 7(

x

–4)

x x +

9

x +

93

5

6.56.66.7

x

9+2------------

6.86.10

C h a p t e r 6 E q u a t i o n s

237

Backtracking — inverse operations

Recall from Year 7 that an equation links two expressions with an equals sign (

=

).Equations are very useful for reducing complex problems to simple terms and can beused to solve many different problems. For example, how much food and water should

x

people take on a camping trip that will last for

n

days?What we have to remember with equations is toalways keep one side of the equals sign equal tothe other side. A useful skill you learned in Year 7was to draw ﬂow charts like this one.The number 7 is called the input number, and bycarrying out the operations in order we ﬁnd thatthe output number is 5.If we are given the output number, we can ﬁnd theinput number by working backwards or

back-tracking

. For example, look at the

ﬂow chart

atright.Starting with the 3, we can use

inverse operations

to ﬁnd the input number.

Remember:

Inverse operations undo each other or cancel each other out.

Adding and subtracting are inverse operations.Multiplying and dividing are inverse operations.

Working backwards,3

×

7

=

2121

+

1

=

2222

÷

2

=

1111

−

5

=

6

7

×

2

–

1 +

2

÷

3

7 14 13 15 5

×

2

– 1 + 2

÷

3

3+ 5

×

2 – 1

÷

7

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