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Chap 12

# Chap 12

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09/16/2014

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Jemma has been asked bythe club president toanalyse the results of herAFL football team for aseason. The points scored in22 matches were:85, 96, 118, 93, 73, 71, 98, 77,106, 64, 73, 88, 62, 97, 104,85, 73, 92, 62, 76, 90, 79.What conclusions can youdraw from these data? Thedata as listed are difﬁcult towork with so we need topresent them in a way thatmakes them easier toanalyse.This chapter looks atvarious ways of displayingdata as well as differentmeasures which describeaspects of the data.
12
Data andgraphs

548
M a t h s Q u e s t 8 f o r V i c t o r i a

areyou
Try the questions below. If you have difﬁculty with any of them, extra help can beobtained by completing the matchingSkillSHEET. Either click on theSkillSHEETicon next to the question on the
Maths Quest 8
Reading scales. (How much is each interval worth?)
1
On each of the following scales, state what each interval is worth.
a b c
2
The line graph at right shows the height of a child (Timmy) over 5 years.
a
How tall was Timmy at the start of the measurementperiod?
b
How much did Timmy grow in the ﬁrst year?
c
How much did Timmy grow over the ﬁve years?
d
How many years did it take for Timmy to grow10 cm?
Producing a frequency table from a frequency histogram
3
Copy and complete the following frequency table toshow the data represented in the frequency histogram.
Finding the mean
4 a
Find the sum of the following data: 6, 3, 5, 4, 5, 4, 6, 7.
b
Divide this sum by the number of items in the data set.
Arranging a set of data in ascending order
5
Arrange each of the following sets of data in ascending order.
a
25, 20, 22, 21, 29, 34, 25
b
215, 381, 276, 345, 298, 277, 325, 400, 304
c
4.6, 0.3, 3.6, 5.8, 2.9, 1.8, 3.5, 5.8, 3.1, 2.8, 3.6
Finding the score in a data set that occurs most frequently
6
For each of the following data sets, ﬁnd the score that occurs most frequently.
a
1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5
b
23, 29, 25, 24, 23, 21, 25, 26, 25, 29
c
7, 12, 8, 3, 5, 11, 8, 4, 2, 1, 6, 10, 13
Score (
x
) Frequency (
)
20 521222324
12.2
54 8060 0 100
12.3
Years
Height (cm)
1001101201301401501601702001 2002 2003 20052004 2006
Increase in Timmy’s heightbetween 2001 and 2006
12.4
876543210
Frequency
20 21 22 23 24Score
12.5

12.712.812.8

12.9

12.12

C h a p t e r 1 2 D a t a a n d g r a p h s
549
Data collection and organisation
Information or
data
is constantly being collected.Different organisations collect different types of data.For example, at a cricket match, some of the
statistics
gathered for a batsman are: time spentbatting, the number of balls faced, the runs off a par-ticular delivery, where the ball was hit, the number of 4s or 6s hit, and so on. Once the data is collected, itcan be organised, analysed and interpreted.Data can be collected from existing sources (suchas government records), from experiments or byobservation.A
survey
is the process of collecting data. If every member of a target population is surveyed,the process is called a
census
. A census is con-ducted in Australia every 5 years to obtain an accurate proﬁle of Australians. Oncensus night each person in Australia is required to complete a detailed booklet con-taining a series of questions relating to age, marital status, employment, income,housing, education, modes of transport and so on. This allows the government to ana-lyse the population and make decisions on how to improve services.Due to limitations in time, cost and practicality, in many cases a
sample
of the popu-lation is selected at
random
(not in any particular order or pattern) to prevent biased(leaning in a favoured direction) results.A sample can give us an indication of what the whole population is like.Consider these situations:1. You cook a batch of mufﬁns to take to a party. Naturally, you want to test whether theyturned out well. Do you eat the
whole population
of cakes as a check?2. A factory produces 400 carsper day.Should there be a crash-test of every car before it is sold to thepublic?In both cases it is not practicalor viable to test each item. There-fore, a sample needs to be taken.The following investigations require you to research different ways to obtain un–biased samples and conduct surveys.Find out how samples are chosen and surveys conducted for:
a
television program ratings
b
top 10 songs, videos and movies.
COMMUNICATION
Samples and surveys