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Oral Histology Lecture 7

Oral Histology Lecture 7

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Published by: Mohamed Harun B. Sanoh on Mar 25, 2011
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Issue 7- 25/03/11 ~ Issue title : “Amelogenesis ” ~ written by : Osama Yousef 
Internal Enamel Ep-itheliumA dental importance
Deposits and later modies enamel and itis responsible or the ormation o enamelonly when the tooth dierentiate and be-come Ameloblasts (enamel orming cells),read this issue to nd out more about theother layers.in this issue we will stumble upon a very important example which is tooth etchingread this issue to nd more about it.
JD
Oralhistologysubject
MK
AmelogenesisLife cycle of Enamel 
Te process by which theenamel is ormed you willread about the dirent stag-es this process has you willread about toms’ process andmany other sturctures andmore in this issue.it consists o 5 stages in this is-sue we disscuess the rst onewhich is presecrotery stageread this issue to know moreabout it.
7
 
Page
One
Lecture title :
Basic InoIndexWriting sta 
eacher Name :Lecture Date :Publish Date :Correction :Number o Pages :Duration :
“a page that sums it all “ 
Amelogenesis
Ashra ShaweshWe/16/03/11T/25/03/118 Pages45 minMohamed Haroon
page one...................................................................1Introduction (slide 2).............................................1Lie cycle o Enamel: (slide 3)...............................2Presecretory stage (slide 5 + 6).............................4Secretory stage (slide 8+9+10)..............................5Mineralization process (slide 11+12 ..................7ermination o secretory stage : (slide 14 + 15 +16...............................................................................8
ransition stage .....................................................8
Tank you or making thisissue possible :
Osama Yousef Mohamed Haroon
Last time we nished the related topics about the tooth development and nowwe will talk about a new subject which is “Amelogenesis” .
Introduction (slide 2)
Amelogensis is: the process which by it the Enamel is ormed. Amelo means Enamel , Genesismeans ormation .
First o all we know that we have dierent layers in Enamel organ like (
Internal Enamel Epithe-lium IEE
,
External Enamel Epithelium EEE
,
Stratum intermedium SI 
and
Stellate Recticu-lum
and all o these our layers are derived rom the ectoderm )
Internal Enamel Epithelium:
what it dose is that it
deposit
and later
modify 
enamel and it is responsible or the  
ormationof enamel
only 
 
when the tooth dierentiate and become Ameloblasts (enamel orming cells). SoInternal Enamel Epithelium dierentiates and gives Ameoblasts and then the Enamel is ormed.
But what about the other layers? Actually they also play an important role in orming the Enam-el (please reer to table 1 next page) note that these
functions are not completely understood.
You should note that the Enamel
dose not orm all at once
, the process starts at the
cusp tips
then >>
Incisal edges
then nally >> a
round the cervical extension o the crown
, this is why at 30 days you will see active Internal enamel Epithelium cells that have been converted intoAmeoblasts started to orm Enamel but at the same time other areas will still have InternalEnamel Epithelium that have not yet been converted) “
By the time enamel is completed eachameloblast will have completed the same lie cycle “ 
, we have a lie cycle or each enamel cell orameloblast when the enamel is ormed their lie cycle ends.
In the teeth o continuous growth (e.g. rodents) , amelogensis is present through-out the animal’s lie “ 
this means that the process o Amelogenes is an
engaged 
 and
continuous
process in the rodents Amelogenesis will produce enamel or theentire lie o that rodent ,why is that ? Because they have long incisors and theseare subject to
tooth ware
. But in the case o 
humans
and all
Mammals
the processactually becomes
muted 
and
stops
at some point o their lie.
table 1 showing the other layers o enamlean example about rodents ani-mals a rat 
Lie cycle o Enamel: (slide 3)
1-presecrotery stage:
beore the secretion o enamel 
2-secrortery stage:
where enamel is secreted and deposit to hard tissues
3-ransition stage:
temporary stage between secretorystage and maturation stage
4-Maturation stage:
the developed enamel matures here
5-post-maturation stage ,
please read table 2 and seegure 1 or the important ino
fgure 1 showing the dirent stages o Amelogensis
 
table 2 read this while vieiwing fgure 1fgure 2 showing EDJ Presecretory stage
Just one side note is that the nucleus location in presecrotery stage (cell 3) and the secro-tery stage (4a and 4b) notice how dierent the location is.
Te nonunctional Ameloblastswill keep protecting the tooth while it orms they just cover the tooth , but once the toothis ormed this layer is lost ( the nonunctional ameloblsts layer )
this is why we cannotreplace enamel i it is lost.
1-Presecretory stage (slide 5 + 6)
All ameloblastic activities beore secretion o enamel matrix
“, we can dividethis stage into two sub-stages:
1- the dierentiation o Internal Enamel epithelium cells IEE (becom-ing ameloblast)
Te diferentiation process starts at
cusp tips
and
incisal edges
and
ends cervically 
also the shape o the cell will change rom
cuboidal to polarized columnar 
(
note that polarized reer to a nucleus located on a onepole ; polarized 
) , the nucleus become near the
Stratum intermedium SI 
, andthe cells are linked by 
gap junctions
and they are organized and nally the
ba-sal lamina
marks the uture
enamel-dentine junction (EDJ)
(please see gure2) you can see the junction between the two structures notice how on one sidethe nucleus o the cells are polarized and they are long coloumnar cells theseare the >>
ameloblasts
.Notice on the other end we have Dentine and basalLamina which together orms the enamel-dentine junction
•2-thesubsequentresorptionofbasallamina:
Te basal lamina starts to break down once the
odontoblasts
have diferentiated; now theodontoblasts and ameloblasts become intimate in contact to allow “signal exchange” whichin turn allows the production o enamel.In presecretory stage the changes do not only occur in amenoblast or the basal lamina they also occur in the outer
mesenchymal 
cells o 
Dentine
(dental papilla). Note that “
Dier-entiation into dontoblasts precedes that o IEE cells which ollows deposition o rst pre-dentine
“this means that the layer o Dentine is ormed beore the Enamel layer and once therst pre-dentin layer is deposited,
IEE
will diferentiate into
ameloblasts
.
erminally dierentiated pre-ameloblasts are joined at SR end by desmosomes orming proximal terminal web
“ meaning that IEE cells and SI cells are joined by 
Desmosomes
toorm proximal terminal web appearance .Note that other cells are joined by gap junctionsas we said earlier desmosomes are only or the terminally diferentiated pre-ameloblasts .In histology and embryology science,
erminal 
means >> “end “,
proximal 
=”
toward theenamel organs
“ note that distal = “
away rom enamel organs
“ so each cell has two endingswe are interested in the proximal ending .
Dentino-enamelJunction
“ully dierentiated ameloblasts have proximally-place nucleus “ meaning that the nucleusare near the enamel organs , “ Basic enamel matrix is assembled in the
endoplasmic re-ticulum ER
and carried to
Golgi apparatus
beore packaging into secretory granules “ thereason why they move proximally and assemble at the ER is because they need to synthe-size protein . Aer the protein is synthesized in ER they are carried via golgi apparatus ,here you can see the small dots which represents the
granules
and also notice the locationo the nucleus . “secretory phase begins with the ormation o a thin layer o enamel matrixas ameloblasts retreat rom EDJ “ meaning that the enamel starts as a thin layer which willretreat gradually rom the Enamel-Dentine junction
Secretory stage :
random example about a polarized nucleus

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