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World War 1

World War 1

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Published by Joyce Seo

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Published by: Joyce Seo on Mar 25, 2011
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The Great War ± WW1 and the Beginning of the End of the Old Order 
Why War?
Imperialism and Competition for coloniesJingoism  patriotism [in public press]  in France and EnglandMuch of the public support for the expansion policiesArms raceBegan with Germany uniting and putting its industrial might behind its armyLargest standing army in Europe  built a navy to challenge the BritishNew warships: dreadnoughtsAlliance SystemsWere supposed to prevent warfareVery complex  after 1879, complex schemes tied most of Europe togetherItaly  switched sides [started in an alliance, and switch]Britain, France & Russia = Triple EntentesAustria, Germany, Italy, Ottoman Empire = Triple AllianceUnsettled relations in the BalkansWarfare in the 1870s, 1880s, and the 1910sConservative alliance between Austria  Hungary, and Russia collapsed over SerbiaBoth Russia and Austria wanted to claim these placesConservative alliance broke down because Austria wanted to get morepower/influence over these countries.Old GrievancesFranco-Prussian War  took a huge amount of land from FranceHad a lot of natural resources  but now military/industrialization process wasntas fast or effective as beforeInflexible mobilization plansSchlieffen Plan  once Germany mobilized for war, and were on trains, it would be hardto stop them  minute that it crossed the frontiers into BelgianEnsured that Britain would come into Belgian in order to ensure neutralityBritain worked hard to lessen the tensions that had erupted after theassassination.The countries that began the fight: France, Britain, GermanyTrigger: Assasination of Austrian Archduke Ferdinand by Serbian nationalist [July 1914]Serbia was independent at the time  they had to stop all autonomy in political,economic, or anything for Austria
Technology and Warfare
Weapons were ahead of tactics  more for defense than offenseMachine guns  invented before WW1Were incredibly lethal  could kill thousands of people per dayBarbed wireUsed with trenchesoriginally for the enclosure movementTrench warfareDefensive warfare  go from one trench to another; were not very safe
 
The Great War ± WW1 and the Beginning of the End of the Old Order 
Heavy artilleryRips through peoples bodies, are very loudTanksCouldnt be used effectively during WW1Gas warfareMustard gas or chlorine gas  mustard
rots you from the insideAircraftTo look out over the fields; also for dogfightsMount guns and shoot each other in the air  was given a specialnickname [Ace]enemy aircraftStalemate on Western frontNew technologies that the commander couldnt figure out how to overcomeThe front between Germany and FranceOver the top  climbing out of the trench, and get to the next trench as fast aspossibleLosses were tremendous  the dark side of industrializationNo gain, but so many deathsThe liberals who had been such promoters of industrialization  more efficient ways of killing each other
The Horrors of War
Art -- showed the worst of war
The War at Sea
Germany was building up its navySubmarinesTried to use these boats to try keeping supplies from Britain  also tried to blockadeGermany in the North Sea
The Home Front in Europe
Total war  affected civilians and soldiers alikeIntense patriotismNot shared by disillusioned on front linesConvinced that itd be short, and that their side would winRationing, nationalization of industryLabor unrest in Germany, RussiaBegan to have workers protestingNeeded people to work in order to get industrialization to keep goingCensorship and propagandaKept civilians in dark about wars progressHyped atrocities by other sideGermans thought they were about to win, and this sparked a rebellionsPropaganda posters  horrible monstersTotal War  direct attacks on civilians at frontGot in the way of gas attacks  goes into the air
 
The Great War ± WW1 and the Beginning of the End of the Old Order 
Women joined the war effort]was a liberating experience  workers in munitions, factories, nursesOutcome: greater social/political freedom, many didnt want to return to the cultof domesticity
The Eastern Front
Russia suffered highest causalities of war  lost more people than any other country in WW1&2Germany casualties a close secondTsarist armies out of their league vs. GermansIncompetent and callous leadersPoor weaponry, poorly trained soldiersWasnt high quality, and couldnt produce enoughBad supply lines  many soldiers got fed upEventually sparked mutinies and peasant revoltsMany just put down their weapons and leftSuch anger  how badly theyre doingDirect outcome: the Russian revolution/communists coming to powerItaly attacked Austria-Hungary for territory [1915]Abysmal showing plunged Italy into turmoilBorders AustriaSet stage for Italian fascism
The Rest of the World
Japan  Ally of the BritishMeiji Restoration  has industrialized, and come to look as an imperial power itself Attacked German colonies in China, PacificPrompts Japan to become even more expansionist  between WW1 & WW2Trying to gain more land/influenceEconomic boom because they were selling things within AsiaArabs supported British and FrenchBritish were the only ones who supported themArabs  rise up and rebel against Ottoman rule  cant help German alliesT. E Lawrence  British man who encourages them to rebel  promises them that if theysupport the British and French  support their desire for independenceSupport from coloniesBritianWhite Settler Societies  served on Western FrontIndian Sepoys in Africa and Middle EastBattle of Gallipoli  1915GermanyAfricans in TanzaniaTurks  ally of GermanyFought in Italy, Russia, Middle EastArmenian genocide  are the scapegoats

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