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Reviewofthestateoftheartingasexplosionmodelling_HS

Reviewofthestateoftheartingasexplosionmodelling_HS

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09/26/2012

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BroadLane, Sheffield
S3
7HQ
Telephone:
01
14
289
2000Facsimile:
0114
289
2500
HEALTH
&
SAFETY
LABORATORY
A
Review
of
the
State-of-the-Art
in
GasExplosion
Modelling
HSLl2002102
Project Leader:
C
J
Lea
H
S
Ledin
MSc
PhD
DIC
Fire
and
Explosion
Group
0
Crown copyright
2002
I.1EAJ.THAND
SAFETY
LABORATORY
An agency
dlhc
Hcalh
Md
Sn(ny&sutiro
 
Summary
Objectives
1.
To identify organisations involved in gas explosion research in the
U.K.
andEurope.
2. To
survey these organisations, to
determine
their areas of current
and
proposedwork.
3.
To collate their responses in a report, which also provides
an
up
to date literaturereview of gas explosion modelling.
4.
To critically assess the strengths
and
weaknesses
of
available
gas
explosionmodels.
5.
To recommend areas
where
fkther work is needed to improve the accuracy ofthe gas explosion models.
Main Findings
I.
There are a wide range of class of models available
-
from empirical andphenomenological, through to those which are Computational Fluid Dynamics
(CFD)
based. The latter category falls into two areas: 'simple'
-
many obstaclesnot resolved and 'advanced'
-
all obstacles resolved by the
3-D
CFD
grid.
2.
Generally as one moves from empirical to advanced
CFD,
models become basedon more fundamental physics, are able to more accurately represent the realgeometry, but require increasing resource to set-up,
run
and interpret the results.
3.
Models in each class embody a number of simplifications
and
assumptions,limiting their ability to be used as reliable predictive tools outside their range
of
validation against test data.
It
appears that only those models falling into'advanced'
CFD
class could
in
principle be capable of
being
truly predictive toolsoutside their immediate range of validation. However, even here the existingmodels have limitations
and
require
further
development and testing before thiscapability is fully realised
-
which even then will currently be limited torelatively simple geometries by the required computer resources.
4.
Many
of the CFD-based explosion models in current use employ relatively crudeapproximations
of
the modelled geometry, relying on calibrated sub-grid models.
5.
Most
of
the 'simple'
CFD
codes and some
of
the 'advanced' CFD codes
most
commonly used for explosion prediction use simple, dated numerical schemes forboth the computational grid and
the
finite differencing, which could lead tosubstantial numerical errors.
HEALTH
ANDSAFETY
LABORATORY
An
agency
of
Ule
Health
and
Safety
Executive
 
6.
The combustion model used in CFD-based approaches to predict the reactionrates are also subject to a considerable degree of uncertainty. Models, whichemploy prescribed reaction rate, could be more sound than those relying on anEddy Break-Up model, because the latter requires a resolution of the
fl
mefrontunlikely to be achieved in practice. Work is currently under way on theincorporation of detailed chemical kinetics into
a
gas explosion model, but it willnot be feasible to use such
a
model on a real complex plant geometry in theforeseeable future.
7.
The simple eddy-viscosity concept is ubiquitous amongst the explosion codes formodelling turbulent transport, but this model of turbulent transport is not strictlyapplicable in high speed, cornbusting flows, leading to further possible errors.There is
a
move to full Reynolds stress turbulence models, these have either beenimplemented in research type codes
-
currently not available on general release,or have not been tested for explosions. 'There are numerical stability problemsassociated with Reynolds stress transport models which need to be addressed.
8.
The accuracy expected from, say phenomenologica~and 'simple'
CFD
models, isgenerally fairly good (to within a factor of two), e.g. the models yield solutionswhich are approximately correct, but, importantly, only for
a
scenario for whichthe model parameters have been tuned.
This
limits the applicability of thesemodels as truly predictive tools.
Main Recommendations
There
is
a range of modelling approaches available, each with their okm strengthsand weaknesses.
In
order to establish greater confidence in model predictions,
it
is clear that, for the future, improvements in the physics and the numerics arerequired, particularly for the CFD-based approaches. However, predictiveapproaches are needed now. It is thus important that the user be aware of theuncertainties associated with the different models. The followingrecommendations are essentially those needed tobetaken on board by modeldevelopers and their funders. They primarily relate to
CFD
models,
which,
inprinciple, should
offer
the best hope of becoming truly predictive models
of
gasexplosions, with wide applicability,
2.
Ideally one would replace the Cartesian grid
1
PDR
porosity
/
DistributedResistance) based
CFD
models by models that are capable of representing
a
given geometry more accurately. However, the likely time scale for thenecessary advances in computing power and code efficiency which will possiblyallow geometries to be fully grid resolved is large, possibly of the order of tenyears or more. Until this
is
possible
a
hybrid approach has to be adopted,whereby body-fitted grids are used to represent the larger objects within theexplosion domain, with the PDR approach reserved for the regions that may notbe resolved by the grid. It is therefore recommended that methodologies
are
developed to allow
a
seamless transition between resolved and PDR-representedsolutions as grids are refined. There should be
a
move away from
fixed
grid
cell
HEALTH
ANDSAFETY
LABORATORY
An
agency
of
the HeaHh
and Safetj
Executive

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