The combustion model used in CFD-based approaches to predict the reactionrates are also subject to a considerable degree of uncertainty. Models, whichemploy prescribed reaction rate, could be more sound than those relying on anEddy Break-Up model, because the latter requires a resolution of the
mefrontunlikely to be achieved in practice. Work is currently under way on theincorporation of detailed chemical kinetics into
gas explosion model, but it willnot be feasible to use such
model on a real complex plant geometry in theforeseeable future.
The simple eddy-viscosity concept is ubiquitous amongst the explosion codes formodelling turbulent transport, but this model of turbulent transport is not strictlyapplicable in high speed, cornbusting flows, leading to further possible errors.There is
move to full Reynolds stress turbulence models, these have either beenimplemented in research type codes
currently not available on general release,or have not been tested for explosions. 'There are numerical stability problemsassociated with Reynolds stress transport models which need to be addressed.
The accuracy expected from, say phenomenologica~and 'simple'
models, isgenerally fairly good (to within a factor of two), e.g. the models yield solutionswhich are approximately correct, but, importantly, only for
scenario for whichthe model parameters have been tuned.
limits the applicability of thesemodels as truly predictive tools.
a range of modelling approaches available, each with their okm strengthsand weaknesses.
order to establish greater confidence in model predictions,
is clear that, for the future, improvements in the physics and the numerics arerequired, particularly for the CFD-based approaches. However, predictiveapproaches are needed now. It is thus important that the user be aware of theuncertainties associated with the different models. The followingrecommendations are essentially those needed tobetaken on board by modeldevelopers and their funders. They primarily relate to
the best hope of becoming truly predictive models
gasexplosions, with wide applicability,
Ideally one would replace the Cartesian grid
models by models that are capable of representing
given geometry more accurately. However, the likely time scale for thenecessary advances in computing power and code efficiency which will possiblyallow geometries to be fully grid resolved is large, possibly of the order of tenyears or more. Until this
hybrid approach has to be adopted,whereby body-fitted grids are used to represent the larger objects within theexplosion domain, with the PDR approach reserved for the regions that may notbe resolved by the grid. It is therefore recommended that methodologies
developed to allow
seamless transition between resolved and PDR-representedsolutions as grids are refined. There should be
move away from