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Table Of Contents

1.1Raw Material Supply
1Extrusion Process
1.2Raw Material Blending andMixing
1.4Feeding Polymer to the Extruder
1.5.1Shaping and Drawing
1.5.2Solidification and Cooling
1.6 Secondary Operations
Review Questions
2 Extruder Safety
2.1.1Hazards Associated with Takeoff Equipment
2.1.2Personal Protective Equipment
2.2Proper Training
2.3Inspection and Housekeeping
2.4Material Safety
3Single Screw Extruder:Equipment
3.4Screw,Barrel,and Heaters
3.5Die and Adapter
3.6.1Temperature Zone Control
3.6.2 Melt Temperature
3.6.3 Pressure Measurement
3.6.4 On-Line Measurements
3.6.5Control Summary
3.7Extruder Devolatilization
3.8 Vertical Extruders
4.1Feed Zone
4Plastic Behavior in the Extruder
4.2Polymer Melting or Plastication
4.3Melt Conveying
4.5Extruder Throughput Calculations
4.6 Devolatilization
5 Screw Design
5.1Barrier Screw
5.2Mixing Screw
5.3Screw Wear
5.3.1 Worn Screws
5.4 Screw Compression Ratios
6.1Extruder Temperature Profiles
6Processing Conditions
6.2Extruder or Production Run Setup
6.4 Steady-state Operation
6.5Shutdown and Product Changes
7Scale Up
8.1Shear Rates
8.2Extruder Screw Calculations[2]
8.3Calculations of Output in Different Sections of the Extruder
9.1Raw Material Supply
9Twin ScrewExtrusionProcess
9.2Raw Material Blending andMixing
9.4Feeding Polymer to the Extruder
9.5.1Shaping and Drawing
9.5.2Solidification and Cooling
9.6Secondary Operations
10.1Hazards Associated with anExtruder
10Extruder Safety
10.1.1 Hazards Associated with Takeoff Equipment
10.2 Personal Protective Equipment
10.4Proper Training
10.5Inspection and Housekeeping
10.6Material Safety
11Twin Screw ExtruderEquipment
11.3Screw and Barrel Heating andCooling
11.4Die and Adapter
11.5 Controls
11.5.1Temperature Zone Control
11.5.2 Pressure Measurement
11.5.3 In-Line Measurements
11.5.4 Control Summary
12Plastic Behavior in Twin Screw Extruders
12.2Plasticating and Melting
12.3Melt Conveying
12.5Downstream Feeding
12.6 Devolatilization
12.9Melt Pressure Profile
12.10Residence Time
13.3Screw Design Applications
14.1Extruder Temperature Profile
14Processing Conditions
14.2Screw Speed
14.3Process Variables
14.4Extruder or Production Run Setup
14.5 Start-Up
14.6Steady-State Operation
14.7Shutdown and Product Changes
14.7.1Disassembling Screw Elements
14.7.2Scenario #1
14.7.3Scenario #2
14.7.4Scenario #3
14.7.5Scenario #4
14.7.6Scenario #5
14.7.7Scenario #6
14.7.8Scenario #7
14.7.9Scenario #8
15.1 Compounding
15 Applications
15.2Reactive Extrusion andDevolatilization
15.3Profile and Other Twin Screw Extrusion Applications
16 Scale-Up
17.1Shear Rates
17Shear Rate,Pressure Drop, and Other Extruder Calculations
17.2Extruder Calculations
17.3Other Calculations
18Polymer Overview and Definitions
18.2Thermoplastic versus Thermoset
18.3Polymer Formation
18.4Molecular Weight
18.6Polymer Structures
19.1Amorphous Polymers
19Polymer Structure
19.2 Semicrystalline Polymers
19.3Comparison of Semicrystalline and Amorphous Polymers
19.4 Crystallinity Measurement
19.5 Polyethylene Crystallinity
19.6 Polypropylene Crystallinity
19.7 Polystyrene Crystallinity
20Polymer Rheology
20.1 Definitions
20.2 Measurement
20.3Viscosity in Extrusion
21 Testing Properties
21.1Density and Specific Gravity
21.2Melt Flow Index
21.4Flexural Test
21.5Compressive Strength
21.6Heat Deflection Temperature
21.7Long-Term Heat Aging
21.8Thermal Properties
21.9Time-Temperature Relationship
21.10Izod Impact
21.12 Comparative Thermoplastic Properties
21.13 Polymer Additives
22.1Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene
22Processing Recommendations for Various Resin Systems
22.1.1Extrusion Temperature Profile
22.2.1 Drying
22.2.2 Extrusion Conditions
22.2.3 Amorphous Polyamide
22.3 Polyethylene
22.3.1 Extrusion Conditions
22.4Polymethyl Methacrylate (Acrylic)
22.4.1 Extrusion Conditions
22.5.1 Extrusion Conditions
22.6.1 Extrusion Conditions
22.7.1 Extrusion Conditions
22.8Polyvinyl Chloride
22.8.1 Extrusion Conditions
22.9 Polyester
22.9.1 Extrusion Conditions
23Problem Solving
24Five Step Problem Solving Process
24.1Problem Definition
24.2Fix the Problem
24.3Identify the Root Cause
24.4Take Corrective Action
24.5Process Monitoring
25Design of Experiments
25.1DOE Process
25.1.1Defining the Problem
25.1.2Plan the Experiment
25.1.3Data Collection
25.1.4 Data Analysis
25.1.5 Report Conclusions
25.2Experimental Design
25.3.1 Factorial Design
25.3.2 Response Surface
25.3.3 Mixture Experiments
26 Quality
26.1Statistical Process Control
26.2Process Capability
27.1Problem 1—Extruder Screw Doesn’t Turn
27Troubleshooting Mechanical ExtrusionProblems
27.2Problem 2—DC Motor Will Not Start[1]
27.3Problem 3—Drive Train Problems[1]
27.4Problem 4—Rupture Disk Failure in Barrel
27.5Problem 5—Barrel/Screw Wear[1]
27.6Problem 6—Screw Turns and NoMaterial Exits the Die
27.7Problem 7— Extruder Shuts ItselfOff
27.8Problem 8—Melt Flows Out the Barrel Vent
27.9Problem 9—Leaking Polymer atBreaker Plate or Die
27.10Problem 10—Extruder Throughput Rate Is LowerthanAnticipated
27.11Problem 11—Temperature Overrides Setpoint
27.12Problem 12—Extruder Surging Caused by the Equipment
27.13Problem 13—Poor or Insufficient Polymer Mixing
27.14Problem 14—Throughput Variation Over Time
28Troubleshooting Extrusion Product Problems
28.1Problem 1—Product Surging
28.2Problem 2—Variation in the Product Over Time
28.3Problem 3—Random Product Variation
28.4Problem 4—Streaks in the Product Caused by Poor Mixing
28.5Problem 5—Variation inProduct Strength
28.6Problem 6—Product Degradation
28.7Problem 7—Dull Streaks
28.8Problem 8—Machine Direction Die Lines
28.9Problem 9—Color Contamination
28.10Problem 10—Holes in Extrudate
28.11Problem 11—Gels
28.12Problem 12—Gauge Variations
28.13Problem 13—Weld Lines
28.14Problem 14— Weak Film or Coating
28.15Problem 15—Warpage
28.16Problem 16—Sink
29 Troubleshooting Sheet Extrusion
29.1.1Problem 1—Die Lip Damage Causing Defects in the Machine Direction
29.2.10Problem 10—Lines and Roughness onSheet
30Troubleshooting CastFilm
30.1Problem 1—Molten Web Tears Easily When Exiting theDie
30.2 Problem 2—Film Thickness Variation
30.3 Problem 3—Lines, Streaks, and Foreign Contamination
30.4Problem 4—Extrudate Width IsToo Narrow
30.5Problem 5—Wrinkles AreFormed in the Film
30.6Problem 6—Roughness on FilmDue to Melt Fracture
31Troubleshooting Blown Film
31.1Problem 1—Bubble Instability
31.2Problem 2—Gauge Variation Around the Circumference
31.3Problem 3—Wrinkles
31.4Problem 4—Lines,Streaks, orFilm Contamination
31.5Problem 5—Rough Film Due toMelt Fracture
32Troubleshooting Profile and Pipe
32.1Problem 1—Excessive Wall Thickness or Thinness
32.2Problem 2—Wavy Surface InsidePipe or Tubing
32.3Problem 3—Weld or Knit Line Weakness
32.4Problem 4—Nonuniform Resin Velocity from a Profile Die
34.1Drying Definitions and FactorsAffecting Drying
34.2 Types of Drying Equipment
34.2.1Oven Drying System
34.2.2Hopper Dryers and Central Drying Systems
34.3Purchasing a Dryer
40Coextrusion Applications
40.3Pipe,Tubing,and Profile
40.4Wire Coating
40.5Large-Part Blow Molding
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Extrusion - The Definitive Processing Guide and Handbook Harold Giles John Wagner

Extrusion - The Definitive Processing Guide and Handbook Harold Giles John Wagner

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Published by: wait_and_bleed on Mar 26, 2011
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