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Biochem Evals 8 Set G

Biochem Evals 8 Set G

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Published by Std Dlshsi
Evaluations Set G
Evaluations Set G

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Published by: Std Dlshsi on Mar 26, 2011
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BIOCHEMISTRY: Evaluations 8 (set G) Page 1
itemnumberanswer explanation1aTAG can be catalyzed to form 3 FFA and glycerol. When glycerol is oxidized it canform glyceraldehyde or dihydroxyacetone which can be phosphorylated intoglyceraldehyde -3-phosphate or dihydoxyacetonephosphate which then is asubstrate in glycolysisbacetaldehyde a product of pyruvate decarboxylation (outside of theglycolytic pathway) to form ethanol with the enzyme pyruvatedecarboxyalase and cofactor thiaminecphosphoenolpyruvate is a substrate of glycolysis but cannot be formedfrom glyceroldpyruvate is already the end product of glycolysis; nonetheless, it cannot beformed form glycerol2c the brain is highly dependent on the circulating glucose for its energy generationain the fi
rst place, the brain doesn’t have the capacity to store fuel (only
liver and muscle stores glycogen). Pwede rin sya kaya lang letter c is abetter answer because this attacks the storage capacity of the brain and not quite its dependency on glucose (basta better answer ung A)bthere is no block in the transport of glucose in the brain since, we all know,that the brain depends greatly on glucose for energydsince the brain nga needs glucose, even at a very low concentration as suchin hypoglycemia, the brain can still utilize glucose, so this choice is unlikelyto be considered3bUDP glucoronates which is conjugated with bilirubin for excretion and L-ascorbate(vitamin C) are synthesized in the uronic pathwayain citric acid cycle (TCA cycle), glucoronates and L-ascorbates are not generated (its primary goal is to produce energy in forms of ATP,NADH,FADH etc)cin Embden-Meyerhoff pathway (glycolysis), the products are pyruvate(aerobic) or lactate (anaerobic)d in Cori's cycle, the main product is glucose (gluconeogenesis)4c it is the main producer of NADPH+Ha it allowed conversion of different monosaccharides other than trioseb it supplies RIBOSE PHOSPHATES to for nucleic acid synthesisdit starts with g6p and ends with g6p so we cannot really say there has beena breakdown but there were conversions along the pathway5cribulose 5 phosphate is the end product of the oxidative reaction in the PPP and theprimary substrate of non-oxidative reaction in PPPa part of the oxidative reaction
BIOCHEMISTRY: Evaluations 8 (set G) Page 2
bproduct of the first reaction in the non-oxidative reaction through theenzyme isomerasedproduct of the first reaction in the non-oxidative reaction through theenzyme epimerase6d isomerase is utilized in the reaction of ribulose5phosphate to ribose5phosphatea3-epimerase in utilized in the reaction of ribulose5phosphate toxylulose5phosphatebtransaldolase is used in the transfer of 3 carbons to formfructose6phosphate and erythrose4phosphatectransketolase is used in the transfer of 2 carbons to formsedoheptulose7phosphate and glygeraldehyde3phosphate,fructiose6phosphate and glyceraldehyde3phosphate7dtransketolase and transaldolase are responsible for interconversions of 3-,4-,5-,6-,7-carbon sugars throug transfer of carbon groups (remember the prefix TRANS fortransfer haha wala lang :) )abccombinations of enzymes are faulty; other enzymes are not involved in theinterconversions8bG6PDH is inhibited by high conc of NADPH though negative feedback; by high GSHbecause high GSH (glutathione in sulfhydryl form) means that GSSG (glutathione indisulfide form) has already been converted to GSH with the help of NADPH--thissignifies that a lot of NADPH has been produced; high palmitoyl CoA signifies that there was an increase production of NADPH, this NADPH was used for synthesis of Fatty acid such as palmitoyl coAacd inappropriate combination9awithout G6PDH there is a decreased production of NADPH which is needed toconvert GSSG to GSH; so with the deficiency in G6PDH there is an accumulation of GSSGbthere is an increase in H2O2 since glutathione is at its GSSG form whichcannot reduce the H2O2c
NADPH keeps the Fe at hemoglobin at Fe2+; with it’s the deficiency
inG6PDH Fe2+ is converted to Fe3+ which cannot bind to oxygen blah blahblahd there is a low concentration of GSH in the absence of NADPH10c L-xylulose5phosphate are both substrate of uronic acid pathway and HMP shunt abd these substrates are not common among the 2 pathways11cL-gluconolactone oxidase in needed for the production of Vit C. this enzyme isdeficient in humansabd these enzymes are not involved in the production of vit C12bxylulose5phosphate cannot be converted to xylitol(uronic pathway) in the event of essential pentosuria so it is excreted in the urinea it is the product of the inhibited reaction in the event of pentosuriacdno information was gathered that pointed to an effect of pentosuria onthese molecules13bglucagon decreases the production of fructose2,6bisphosphate which is a potent inhibitor of fructose1,6bisphosphatase; therefore it cannot inhibit the action of f16bp thus promote gluconeogenesisacd these enzymes are not affected by F26BP
BIOCHEMISTRY: Evaluations 8 (set G) Page 3
14agluconeogenesis is an energy requiring pathway and in the action of PEPCK it utilizes GTP as a source of phosphate to be transferred to OXAA to producePhosphoenolpyruvatebcd not used by the enzyme (ayaw nya eh, bakit ba?!? Haha joke lang :| )15ain glycogenesis, UDP-glc is added to the NON-REDUCING end of a small glycogenmolecule this is applicable in both elongation (linear) and branching of the chainb
glycogenesis doesn’t involve synthesis of a protein primer though it is a
used to start the processcthough this can be an answer, letter A choice discussed how the elongationhappens; in addition amylopectin chains are linear and glycogenesisinvolves both elongation in a linear pattern and branching patterndthis can also be an answer however this only describes the branchingmechanism of the pathway16c fructose must first be phosphorylated before its metabolismabdenzymes are found in the middle of the pathway so they are not really inthe INITIAL REACTION of fructose metabolism17cglycogenolysis is the removal of glucose residues in glycogen and in order to do thisthe enzyme glycogen phosphorylase is used.a glycogen synthase is used in glycogenesisb hexokinase is used in phosphorylation of glucosedg6pase is used in the cleavage of phosphate in G6P at the end of glycogenolysis18cthe formation of NADH in glycolysis is a source of energy. In the event of lowoxygen concentration such as in exercise, NADH is utilized by lactateddehydrogenase to form lactate from pyruvate. This decreases the source of energyof muscles since NADH is equivalent to 3ATPs; thus, less energy generated, moreprone to fatigue (disclaimer: not sure if this is really the explanation but nonetheless it makes sense so...you could look it up if you want. sorry :( )ain exercise, energy is utilized and exhausted but then, ATP is produced in anormal rate. ATP can be exhausted but this may not be primarily the causeof muscle fatigue, it contributes though (hindi kasi ito ung answer saanswer key eh :) hahaha joke :)bsodium-
potassium imbalance doesn’t contribute to the energy production
pathways so there might not be a connection with these ions and fatigue(not sure)daccumulation of ADP is not directly correlated to energy utilization (hahanot sure.sorry ulit. Nevermind this na lang, di naman ito ang sagot eh :)haha)19dthe reaction that links glycolysis to TCA cycle is: pyruvate (glycolysis) to Acetyl CoA(TCA cycle) through the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenasea enzyme in TCA cycleb link between TCA and gluconeogenesisc enzyme in TCA cycle20dthere are 3 irreversible steps in glycolysis. They are catalyzed by (1) glucose kinase,(2) phosphofructokinase (3)pyruvate kinase. The committed step is the reactioncatalyzed by PFK1 which produces fructose 1,6 bisphosphateabcall of which are products of non-reversible reactions which cannot beconsidered as a committed step

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