SUBJECT: TOPIC Page 1
Micronutrients (5 pts.) are the only ones included in this evaluation. (nos. 56-69)itemnumberanswer explanation56 aHYPOKALEMIC: The med student is Hypokalemic because she has a serum potassium level of 2.1 mmol/Lwhich is below normal. (Refer to next number.)57 b The normal range for plasma K is
.58 bDIARRHEA and VOMITING could cause hypokalemia.Potassium is the major intracellular cation in the body that is found widely in vegetables which means that wecan take in K by eating high-K foods (RDA=2000mg). This also means that we can lose K
through the GIT
(byexcessive vomiting, severe diarrhea, using laxatives, and having callous adenoma)!Also, excretion of K could also be by
(diuretics, Conn’s tumor, licorice, Cushing’s syndrome –
Remember that potassium excretion increases when there is excessive dietary intake of sodium.
59 d ALL OF THE ABOVE
Sweet potato, banana, orange juice are good sources of Potassium.
IODINE is the mineral most essential in synthesis of thyroxine, a thyroid hormone.
Here’s the table for other microminerals:
Elements Metabolic Function DeficiencyChromium Potentiate the effect of insulinImpaired glucosemetabolismCobalt Constituent of B12 Macrocytic anemiaCopper Constituent of oxidaseenzymesIron Absorption andmetabolismMicrocytichypochromicanemiaDepigmentation of skin and hairFluoride Constituent of bone andteethDental CarriesIodine Constituent of thyroidhormoneCretinism, goiterIron Constituent of hemeand non-hemecompoundsMicrocytic anemiaManganese Cofactor for number of enzymes eg. Arginaseand carboxylaseNot well definedMolybdenum Constituent of xanthineoxidase, sulfite oxidaseand aldehyde oxidaseXanthinuriaSelenium Antioxidant, cofactor forglutathione peroxidase,protects against cellmembrane, lipidperoxidationCardiomyopathyZinc Cofactor for enzymes inDNA, RNA and proteinsynthesis, constituent of insulin, carbonicanhydrase,carboxypeptidase,alcohol dehydrogenaseGrowth failure,impaired woundhealing and loss of appetite
CALCIFEROL stimulates the absorption of calcium.Calcium absorption is dependent on Vitamin D (Calciferol is the active form), because with its presence,Calcium binding proteins in the intestinal epithelial cells are formed. The body responds to low blood calcium
by producing Parathyroid Hormone (PTH). PTH’s primary action is to increase blood calcium by bone
resorption, secondarily by converting Vit D to 1,25-dihydroxycalciferol in the small intestine (duodenum
increase dietary Ca absorption).Calcium absorption is high during growth, pregnancy and lactation.On the other hand, high blood Calcium stimulates the thyroid gland to produce Calcitonin. As a result, there isdecreased osteoclastic activity in the bones, increase renal calcium excretion by the kidneys, and decreased
TOPIC: EVALS 12 SET M
DATE: MARCH 2011