2and security sector leaders should ocus on fve priorityreorms to orge a
new military governance
reform no. 1: eStAbliSh nAtionAl,threAtS-bASed dSf
Some Arican deense and security orces con-tinue to operate without any constituent documentthat clearly sets orth their missions and defnes theirrules o deployment. This perpetuates many problemsand causes great conusion in defning their purposes,their confgurations, and the resources and the tasksassigned to them.In the feld, this oten results in orces that areinsuiciently organized and poorly equipped withlopsided troop numbers that are difcult to manageand control. Roles and responsibilities o the mili-tary and police in some instances are unclear andoverlap, leading to inadequate budgetary support andimproper and counterproductive deployments.To remedy these structural and organizationalweaknesses, it is incumbent on the senior chain o command to:
deine a clear and pertinent interservicesnational security strategy
establish suitable doctrines or the use o orce
adopt rational organizational structures
establish and maintain appropriate humanand materiel resource management practices.Well-conceived national security plans are signso military proessionalism and enable proactive, ex-ible, and rapid responses to threats. Ghana, Senegal,Sierra Leone, and Burkina Faso, among others, havemade noteworthy progress toward developing suchcomprehensive plans.A coherent national security strategy provides asystematic basis to restructure a nation’s deense andsecurity orces. This is a top priority given that orcestructures or many Arican countries are misalignedwith today’s threats. A rational deense structure pro-vides commanders and oversight authorities the abil-ity to better balance the missions to be ulflled withavailable resources. It also osters a more outcomes-based means to create budgets, recruit, train, procureassets, maintain equipment, and reliably track troopcompensation. As a result, even in a context o lim-ited budget resources, overall efciency and readinesscan improve. Additionally, these tools help preventembezzlement and corruption, a requent aictionwithin Arican DSF. For example, public submissiono the deense budget to parliament was reinstitutedin Zambia in the 1990s and has continuously led toadjustments that produce new eiciencies, revealpoor management, and rectiy the misallocation o unds within the DSF.Restructuring deense and security orces must in-volve key societal stakeholders. This approach under-scores that DSF are rom and or the broader society—not distinct rom it. Sierra Leone, which continues toconsolidate reorms made during a multiyear compre-hensive DSF restructuring, provides a model o pro-ductive consultative deense review. Citizens’ groups,civilian agencies, and senior ofcers collaborated to de-sign new policies that streamlined the DSF commandstructure, elevated training and personnel priorities,and enhanced accountability and transparency.
reform no. 2: build inStitutionS ofProfeSSionAl dSf
Order, discipline, know-how, and rigorous stan-dards have always been the mainstays o eective de-ense and security orces. Scenes o mutiny, looting,and violence by troops in ragged atigues—all tooamiliar in Arica—are the antithesis o a proessionalDSF. Reorms that enhance ethics, improve training,
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