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Localization of acupoints on a head based on a 3D virtual body

Localization of acupoints on a head based on a 3D virtual body

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Image and Vision Computing
Vol23Iss01 (050101)


Localization of acupoints on a head based on a 3D virtual body
Lei Zhenga, Binjie Qina, Tiange Zhuanga,*, Ulf Tiedeb, Karl Heinz Hohneb

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
Institute of Medical Informatics (IMI), University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
Received 11 February 2004; received in revised form 15 March 2004; accepted 31 March 2004

Abstract
Modern computer science allows powerful and versatile computer-based knowledge representations of acupuncture, one part of Traditional Chinese Medicine. For further research and development of acupuncture therapy, it is critical to define where to accurately localize acupoints onto such a computer based pictorial representation of the human body. Using the segmentation and 3D visualization of the VOXEL-MAN software system, original work for localizing the acupoints on a head based of a virtual body is reported in this paper.
The proposed 2D acupoint description links the description taken from literature for locating acupoints in Traditional Chinese Medicine to the data in the absolute reference frame of a 3D virtual body. It offers a simple and useful way for the localization of acupoints on a 3D model, especially one derived from the data from Visible Human Project.
q 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Traditional Chinese Medicine; Acupuncture and moxibustion; Localization of acupoints; Three-dimensional body model; Visible Human Project;
VOXEL-MAN
Image and Vision Computing
Vol23Iss01 (050101)


Localization of acupoints on a head based on a 3D virtual body
Lei Zhenga, Binjie Qina, Tiange Zhuanga,*, Ulf Tiedeb, Karl Heinz Hohneb

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
Institute of Medical Informatics (IMI), University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
Received 11 February 2004; received in revised form 15 March 2004; accepted 31 March 2004

Abstract
Modern computer science allows powerful and versatile computer-based knowledge representations of acupuncture, one part of Traditional Chinese Medicine. For further research and development of acupuncture therapy, it is critical to define where to accurately localize acupoints onto such a computer based pictorial representation of the human body. Using the segmentation and 3D visualization of the VOXEL-MAN software system, original work for localizing the acupoints on a head based of a virtual body is reported in this paper.
The proposed 2D acupoint description links the description taken from literature for locating acupoints in Traditional Chinese Medicine to the data in the absolute reference frame of a 3D virtual body. It offers a simple and useful way for the localization of acupoints on a 3D model, especially one derived from the data from Visible Human Project.
q 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Traditional Chinese Medicine; Acupuncture and moxibustion; Localization of acupoints; Three-dimensional body model; Visible Human Project;
VOXEL-MAN

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Localization of acupoints on a head based on a 3D virtual body
Lei Zheng
a
, Binjie Qin
a
, Tiange Zhuang
a,
*, Ulf Tiede
b
, Karl Heinz Ho¨hne
b
a
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
b
Institute of Medical Informatics (IMI), University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
Received 11 February 2004; received in revised form 15 March 2004; accepted 31 March 2004
Abstract
Modern computer science allows powerful and versatile computer-based knowledge representations of acupuncture, one part of Traditional Chinese Medicine. For further research and development of acupuncture therapy, it is critical to define where to accuratelylocalize acupoints onto such a computer based pictorial representation of the human body. Using the segmentation and 3D visualization of the VOXEL-MAN software system, original work for localizing the acupoints on a head based of a virtual body is reported in this paper.The proposed 2D acupoint description links the description taken from literature for locating acupoints in Traditional Chinese Medicine tothe data in the absolute reference frame of a 3D virtual body. It offers a simple and useful way for the localization of acupoints on a 3D model,especially one derived from the data from Visible Human Project.
q
2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords:
Traditional Chinese Medicine; Acupuncture and moxibustion; Localization of acupoints; Three-dimensional body model; Visible Human Project;VOXEL-MAN
1. Introduction
The science of acupuncture and moxibustion is animportant part of Traditional Chinese Medicine Chinesepeople have accepted it for thousands of years, because of its magic curative effect, simple operation, low cost, andfew side effects. Now, use of the science of acupuncture andmoxibustion has even spread all over the world.Acupuncture therapy heavily depends upon the preciseplacement of the acupuncture needle at the proper pointon the body surface. Some of them are vital. Such pointsare defined within the context of blood vessels andnerves. Positioning errors in acupuncture treatment cancause medical accidents. Therefore the accurate localiz-ation of acupoints is a key issue in the acupunctureresearch.In traditional medicine, knowledge on acupuncture isdescribed in books and atlases, such as the anatomical chartsof acupuncture and moxibustion. However, modern com-puter science, especially computerized three-dimensionalmodels[1,2], allows new, more standardized and reprodu-cible computer-based representations of the human body.We expect that the use of such models will not onlydecisively advance learning and teaching acupuncture, butalso substantially contribute to the research concerningTraditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory.One of these models is the VOXEL-MAN[3]system,which consists of a voxel based spatial model of the humanbody linked to a semantic network containing the descrip-tive information. One of the prerequisites, however, formaking use of this model for acupuncture, we need totransfer the classical qualitative description of the acupointsinto the computer-based model. With the example of thehuman head we therefore propose in this paper algorithmsfor transferring the localizations of the acupoints of thehuman head from classical atlases and books to thecomputer based model.
2. Pre-processing
Spatial knowledge representation in medical imagingand computer graphics is totally different from what is usedin the literature for locating acupoints in TCM.The first usesan absolute reference frame, which has almost no relation tothe image content, while the latter employs a relativereference frame relative to constituents of the body.
0262-8856/$ - see front matter
q
2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.imavis.2004.03.005Image and Vision Computing 23 (2005) 1–9www.elsevier.com/locate/imavis*Corresponding author.
E-mail address:
tgzhuang@sjtu.edu.cn (T.G. Zhuang).
 
Furthermore, computer based volume models arediscretized in voxels. In current research, a voxel of theVOXEL-MAN is e.g. 1.08 mm in each dimension[3].However, the basic unit for a relative reference frame usedby traditional acupoint localization is usually defined by‘Bone Proportional Measurement’[4]between landmarkson the human body. It makes the acupoint position suitablefor everybody, no matter whether the boy is thin or fat or tallor short.To locate acupoints on a 3D human body modelaccurately, we design a temporary reference frame (TRF)to relate the absolute reference frame (ARF) of 3D medicalimages to the relative reference frame (RRF) used intraditional acupoint localization methods.
2.1. General definition
On a body or body image, we define the axis
x
of TRF asthe orientation from right to left, the axis
y
from anterior toposterior and the axis
z
from inferior to superior Especially,in this paper, we set the origin of TRF on the midpointbetween the two eyebrows, as shown inFig. 1.
2.2. Plane yz
One property of a human body is its left-right symmetry,whichisalsoexpressedonthehumanbodyimage.Amethodbased on the use of moments could help us to find themedian longitudinal plane[5].The
ð
i
;
j
;
Þ
-
moment 
of a three-dimensional digital imageis
m
ijk 
¼
P
x
;
y
;
z
x
i
y
j
z
ð
x
;
y
;
z
Þ
;
where
ð
x
;
y
;
z
Þ
is the greyvalue function of the image. So the centroid
ð
g
x
;
g
y
;
g
z
Þ
is given by the first-order moments, that is
ð
g
x
;
g
y
;
g
z
Þ ¼ð
m
100
m
000
;
m
010
m
000
;
m
001
m
000
Þ
:
The
central
ð
i
;
j
;
Þ
-
moment 
of the three dimensionaldigital image is defined as
m
ijk 
¼
P
x
;
y
;
z
ð
x
2
g
x
Þ
i
ð
y
2
g
y
Þ
j
ð
z
2
g
z
Þ
ð
x
;
y
;
z
Þ
:
So the principal axes of the image can bedefined as the eigenvectors of the matrix
¼
m
020
þ
m
002
2
m
110
2
m
101
2
m
110
m
200
þ
m
002
2
m
011
2
m
101
2
m
011
m
200
þ
m
020
26643775
:
To a symmetry 3D image, the centroid is on the medianlongitudinalplane,whileoneoftheprincipalaxesoftheimageis parallel to the normal direction of the median longitudinalplane, as shown inFig. 2.Given the centroid
ð
g
x
;
g
y
;
g
z
Þ
and the normal direction
ð
p
x
;
p
y
;
p
z
Þ
T
;
the parameters of the median longitudinal planeequation
a·x
þ
b·y
þ
c·z
¼
1 are:
abc
26643775
¼
1
p
x
g
x
þ
p
y
g
y
þ
p
z
g
x
p
x
p
y
p
z
26643775
ð
1
Þ
Now, the resulted median longitudinal plane is consideredto be the plane
yz
of TRF.
2.3. Axis z and plane xz
In order to define the axis
z
and the plane
xz
of TRF, weproceed with the following steps:
With the midpoint between the two eyebrows (point
A
)and the corners of mouth (point
B
and
), the plane ABCcould be determined
The intersecting line between the plane ABC andthe plane
yz
defined above is considered as the axis
z
of TRF.
Fig. 1. Definition of TRF (1). Left: the position of the origin on a 3D virtual body. Right: the direction of the axes with the same view angle as the left.
L. Zheng et al. / Image and Vision Computing 23 (2005) 1–9
2
 
The plane through the axis
z
;
which is perpendicular tothe plane
yz
;
is determined as the plane
xz
;
as shown inFig. 3.Given point
A
ð
x
A
;
y
A
;
z
A
Þ
;
point
B
ð
x
B
;
y
B
;
z
B
Þ
;
point
ð
x
;
y
;
z
Þ
and the median longitudinal plane, the plane
yz
ð
a
yz
·x
þ
b
yz
·y
þ
c
yz
·z
¼
1
;
Þ
then the intersecting point of the line
BC 
and the plane
yz
;
point
A
0
ð
x
A
0
;
y
A
0
;
z
A
0
Þ
;
satisfiesthe following simultaneous equations
a
yz
·x
A
0
þ
b
yz
·y
A
0
þ
c
yz
·z
A
0
ð
2a
Þ
x
A
0
2
x
B
x
2
x
B
¼
y
A
0
2
y
B
y
2
y
B
ð
2b
Þ
x
A
0
2
x
B
x
2
x
B
¼
z
A
0
2
z
B
z
2
z
B
ð
2c
Þ
From Eqs. (2a)–(2c), the coordinate vector is
x
A
0
y
A
0
z
A
0
26643775
¼
a b cy
2
y
B
x
B
2
x
0
z
2
z
B
0
x
B
2
x
26643775
2
1
·
1
x
B
y
2
x
y
B
x
B
z
2
x
z
B
26643775
:
The axis
z
coinciding with the line
A
0
A
could be expressed asthe equation:
x
2
x
A
x
A
0
2
x
A
¼
y
2
y
A
y
A
0
2
y
A
¼
z
2
z
A
z
A
0
2
z
A
:
Fig. 3. Definition of TRF (2). Left: the position of the reference points (point
A
;
B
and
). Right: the relationship of the points, axes and planes. Note: point
B
and
are not always on the plane
xz
:
Fig. 2. The symmetry property of a virtual head. Left: a symmetry slice of the head. Right: the principal axes of the virtual head, while
P
1 is considered to pointout the normal direction of the median longitudinal section.
L. Zheng et al. / Image and Vision Computing 23 (2005) 1–9
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