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Impact Of A Jet Lab Report

Impact Of A Jet Lab Report

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Published by JohnConor
Lab Report
Lab Report

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Published by: JohnConor on Mar 27, 2011
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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03/15/2015

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Impact Of A Jet
1. Abstract
This
object
iv
e of t
his
exper 
i
ment
is
to
s
tudy t
h
e jet force
s
 
i
mpact
i
ng aga
i
n
s
t
s
tat
i
onarydeflector 
s.
 
Th
e deflector 
s
u
s
ed
i
n t
his
exper 
i
ment can be categor 
is
ed
i
nto t
h
ree geometr 
i
e
s.
 Plate,
h
em
is
 p
h
ere and
s
lope deflector 
s
are u
s
ed for t
his
exper 
i
ment
.
Calculated force
,
F
t
h
 
andt
h
e percentage of error w
i
ll be calculated
i
n t
his
exper 
i
ment
.
 
2. Introduction
 Water turb
i
ne
s
are w
i
dely u
s
ed t
h
roug
h
out t
h
e world to generate power 
.
By allow
i
ng flu
i
dunder pre
ss
ure to
s
tr 
ik 
e t
h
e
v
ane
s
of a turb
i
ne w
h
eel, mec
h
an
i
cal wor 
can be produced
.
 Rotat
i
onal mot
i
on
is
t
h
en produced by t
h
e force generated a
s
t
h
e jet
s
tr 
ik 
e
s
t
h
e
v
ane
s.
One of t
h
e common type
s
of water turb
i
ne
s
 
is
Pelton w
h
eel
.
In t
his
type of water turb
i
ne, one or more water jet
s
are d
i
rected tangent
i
ally on to a
v
ane
s
or buc
et
s
t
h
at are fa
s
tened on t
h
e r 
i
mof t
h
e turb
i
ne d
is
c
.
 
Th
e
i
mpact of t
h
e water on t
h
e
v
ane
s
generate
s
a torque on t
h
e w
h
eelcau
si
ng
i
t to rotate and to de
v
elop power 
.
 
T
o pred
i
ct t
h
e output of a Pelton w
h
eel and todeterm
i
ne
i
t
s
opt
i
mum rotat
i
onal
s
 peed, under 
s
tand
i
ng on
h
ow t
h
e deflect
i
on of t
h
e jetgenerate
s
a force on t
h
e buc
et
s
and
h
ow t
h
e force
is
related to t
h
e rate of momentum flow
i
nt
h
e jet are needed
.
 
This
exper 
i
ment a
i
m
s
at a
ss
e
ssi
ng t
h
e d
i
fferent force
s
exerted by t
h
e
s
amewater jet on a
v
ar 
i
ety of geometr 
i
cal d
i
fferent plate
s.
Under t
his
exper 
i
ment, t
h
e forcegenerated by a jet of water 
s
tr 
iki
ng a deflector 
is
mea
s
ured
.
 
3. Experiment Methods and Materials
Th
e apparatu
s
u
s
ed
i
n t
his
exper 
i
ment are
h
ydraul
i
c
 
 benc
h
, deflector 
s
(plate,
h
em
is
 p
h
ere and
s
lope), water jet apparatu
s
, we
i
g
hi
ng tan
,
s
topwatc
h
and load
i
ng we
i
g
h
t
.
 Before t
h
e exper 
i
ment wa
s
carr 
i
ed out, a qu
i
c
 
i
n
s
 pect
i
on wa
s
performed to en
s
ure t
h
at t
h
eun
i
t
is
 
i
n proper operat
i
ng cond
i
t
i
on
.
F
i
s
t, a
h
o
s
e connect
i
on wa
s
made and
is
connected tot
h
e neare
s
t power 
s
upply
.
 
Th
en, t
h
e d
is
c
h
arge p
i
 pe wa
s
opened
.
W
h
en a
ss
embl
i
ng t
h
edeflector, t
h
e 3
s
crew
s
on t
h
e co
v
er were f 
i
s
t loo
s
ened and t
h
e co
v
er wa
s
remo
v
ed toget
h
er w
i
t
h
t
h
e le
v
er mec
h
an
is
m
.
Plate deflector wa
s
t
h
en f 
i
tted
.
After t
h
at, t
h
e loc
nut on rod wa
s
 t
i
g
h
tened and t
h
e co
v
er wa
s
 
s
crewed bac
onto
v
e
ss
el
.
 
Th
e po
i
nter wa
s
 
s
et to zero u
si
ngadju
s
t
i
ng
s
crew before plac
i
ng any load
i
ng we
i
g
h
t
s
on mea
s
urement
s
y
s
tem
.
De
si
red load
i
ngwe
i
g
h
t: 0
.2N
, 0
.
3
 N
, 1
 N
,
2N
and 5
 N
were t
h
en appl
i
ed
.
 
Th
e ma
i
n coc
wa
s
clo
s
ed and t
h
e pump wa
s
 
s
w
i
tc
h
ed on
.
 
Th
e ma
i
n coc
wa
s
carefully opened unt
i
l t
h
e po
i
nter 
is
on zero aga
i
n
.
 After t
h
at, dra
i
n coc
wa
s
clo
s
ed and t
h
e flow rate wa
s
determ
i
ned
.
 
Ti
me requ
i
red for t
h
ele
v
el
i
n t
h
e
v
olumetr 
i
c tan
to
is
e from
2
0 to 30 l
i
tre
s
wa
s
recorded
.
 
Th
en, t
h
e pump wa
s
 
s
w
i
tc
h
ed off and t
h
e dra
i
n wa
s
opened
.
 
Th
e
s
e
s
tep
s
were repeated for 
h
em
is
 p
h
ere and
s
lopedeflector 
s.
All t
h
e re
s
ult
s
were recorded and tabulated
.
 
4. Data Analysis
Th
e
s
 pec
i
i
c re
s
ult
s
from t
h
e exper 
i
ment allow u
s
to determ
i
ne t
h
e propert
i
e
s
of force act
i
ngon eac
h
type of deflector and to calculate t
h
e calculated force
,
F
t
h
 
and t
h
e percentage of error 
.
 Plate
Flow Rate, Q(m
3
/s)Calculated Force, F
th
(N)Measured Force, F(N)Time, t(s)Percentage of Error (%)
2.
01 x 10
-4
0
.
5144 0
.2
49
.76
15
7.2
03
.6
48 x 10
-4
1
.6
944 0
.
3
27.
41 4
6
4
.
80
 
4
.272
x 10
-4
 
2.
3
2
3
7
1
.
0
2
3
.
41 13
2.
3
7
 4
.
554 x 10
-4
 
2.6
40
6
 
2.
0
2
1
.
93 3
2.
03
6.6
93 x 10
-4
5
.7
03
6
5
.
0 14
.
94
22.
81Hem
is
 p
h
ere
Flow Rate, Q(m
3
/s)Calculated Force, F
th
(N)Measured Force, F(N)Time, t(s)Percentage of Error (%)
9
.
599 x 10
-5
0
.2
34
6
0
.2
104
.2
8 1
7.
301
.77
3 x 10
-4
0
.
8005 0
.
3 5
6.
41 1
66.
83
2.
45
6
x 10
-4
1
.
53
6
0 1
.
0 40
.7
1 53
.6
03
.
35
7
x 10
-4
 
2.
8
6
9
7
 
2.
0
2
9
.7
9 43
.
495
.
1
7
9 x 10
-4
 
6.
830
2
5
.
0 19
.
31 3
6.6
0Slope
Flow Rate, Q(m
3
/s)Calculated Force, F
th
(N)Measured Force, F(N)Time, t(s)Percentage of Error (%)
1
.
899 x 10
-4
0
.22
9
6
0
.2
5
2.66
14
.
80
2.
94
7
x 10
-4
0
.
55
2
9 0
.
3 33
.
93 84
.
305
.
88
2
x 10
-4
 
2.2
0
26
1
.
0 1
7.
00 1
2
0
.26
 
7.77
x 10
-4
3
.
8435
2.
0 1
2.
8
7
9
2.
18
5. Discussion
For t
his
exper 
i
ment, we u
s
ed 10 l
i
tre of water and a nozzle of d
i
ameter 10mm
.
Ba
s
ed on t
h
et
i
me recorded and t
h
e
i
nformat
i
on abo
v
e, we are able to calculate t
h
e calculated force, F
t
h
 
andt
h
e percentage of error 
.
F
i
s
t, we con
v
ert t
h
e un
i
t of t
h
e flow rate, Q from L/m
i
n to m
3
/
s
for t
h
e ea
si
er of calculat
i
on
.
For t
h
e calculated force, F
t
h
 
and percentage of error, t
h
ey arecalculated accord
i
ng to t
h
e formula
s
below
.
 Formula
s
u
s
ed to calculate t
h
e calculated force, F
t
h
:-Plate:

 Hem
is
 p
h
ere:

 
Slope:



 
Formula u
s
ed to calculate t
h
e percentage of error:-
Percentage of Error 
=












 
In t
his
exper 
i
ment, w
h
en t
h
e mea
s
ured
i
ncrea
s
ed, t
h
e t
i
me needed for t
h
e le
v
el
i
n t
h
e
v
olumetr 
i
c tan
to r 
is
e from
2
0 to 30 l
i
tre
s
decrea
s
e
.
 
This
re
s
ult
s
 
i
n a decrea
s
e
i
n t
h
e flow rate
.
 W
h
en compar 
i
ng t
h
e t
h
ree type
s
of deflector 
s
, t
h
e flow rate for t
h
e
h
em
is
 p
h
ere
is
found to bet
h
e lowe
s
t
.
 
Th
e percentage of error ranged from around 14% to around 4
7
0%
.
Some of t
h
e percentage
s
 of error are
v
ery large due to
s
e
v
eral error 
s
made dur 
i
ng t
h
e exper 
i
ment
.
One of t
h
e error 
s
 may be t
h
e error made dur 
i
ng
s
ett
i
ng t
h
e po
i
nter, t
h
e po
i
nter may not prec
is
ely
s
et to zero dueto parallax error 
.
Anot
h
er po
ssi
 ble error 
is
t
h
e error made w
h
en record
i
ng t
h
e t
i
me
.
Ot
h
er t
h
an t
h
at, error made w
h
en adju
s
t
i
ng t
h
e ma
i
n coc
 
is
al
s
o po
ssi
 ble
.
 
Th
e ma
i
n coc
may not properly open cau
si
ng t
h
e po
i
nter not exactly at zero
.
 

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