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Phase Diagram of a Ternary System Lab Report

Phase Diagram of a Ternary System Lab Report

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Published by JohnConor
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Published by: JohnConor on Mar 27, 2011
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04/23/2013

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Phase Diagram of a Ternary System
1. Abstract
The purpose this experiment was carried out was to determine the bimodal curve and thetypical tie lines of the water-ethyl acetate-propanoic acid system. The points on the bimodalcurve was determined using the mass fractions of ethyl acetate, water and propanoic acid of mixtures A to F after the propanoic acid was slowly added until a single phase clear solutionis obtained. The tie line is drawn using the mass fractions of ethyl acetate, water andpropanoic acid of mixtures S, T and U with the ratio of mass of S
E
/mass of S
W
using trial anderror method. Three phase diagram will be drawn in this experiment.
2. Introduction
Separation process in which a solute in a feed stream is extracted by contacting the feed witha solvent is called solvent extraction. The solute has to be soluble in both the feed and solventin order for the extraction to take place. The solvent and the feed for industrial extractionoperations are normally partially soluble in one another. A ternary system will be formedconsists of the feed, solvent and solute. The composition of such a system can beconveniently represented on an equilateral triangle plot with each corner of the trianglerepresenting one of the three components. In this experiment, the three components are ethylacetate (the solvent E), water (the feed W) and propanoic acid (the solute A).
3. Experiment Methods and Materials
The apparatus used in the experiment include conical flask, 100ml measuring cylinder withstopper, hanging weight of known volume, 4 decimal place balance, top loading balance,spring balance, vernier callipers, burette, stirrer, dropper, beaker, stand and clamp, filter funnel, ethyl acetate, water and propanoic acid.The experiment procedures include:Determination of Points on the Bimodal CurveFirst, a mixture of 20g of water and 4g of ethyl acetate was prepared in a 250ml conical flask.The mixture is cloudy upon shaking because it is a two-phase system. Water was addeddropwise to find the solubility of ethyl acetate in water. The mixture was shaken until thesolution turns clear. Then, the exact weight of both components was recorded. The procedurewas repeated with the reverse amounts of the two components. Ethyl acetate was then addedto find the solubility of water in ethyl acetate. After that, 2-phase mixtures of ethyl acetateand water were prepared according to the amounts as shown in the table below. Propanoicacid was added dropwise and the mixture was kept shaken and more propanoic was addeduntil a single phase clear solution was formed. The weight of propanoic required to achieve aclear solution was recorded. Finally, the weights were converted into mass fractions andplotted on the triangular graph. All the results were recorded and tabulated.
 
Determination of Tie LinesFirst, two-phase mixtures were prepared in a 100ml measuring cylinder according to theamount as shown in the table below. The cylinder was enclosed with a stopper and wasshaken well. It was then allowed to rest until mixtures have settled in two phase with a clear interface. The volumes of the aqueous phase (the lower phase) and the organic phase (theupper phase) for each mixture were read off. After that, the density of the aqueous phase andthat of the organic phase was determined using the hanging weight and digital balance withthe application of Archimedes Principle. The mass, M
E
of the organic phase and the mass,M
W
of the aqueous phase were computed. Then, the ratio M
E/
M
W
for each mixture wereobtained. Finally, tie line for each mixture was plotted using the inverse Lever Rule and theratio M
E
/M
W
by trial and error method. All the results were recorded and tabulated. Phasediagrams for the three mixtures were plotted.
4. Data Analysis
The specific results from the experiment allow us to determine the mass fraction, density,mass and ratio of S
E
/mass of S
W
.
Mixture EthylAcetate(g)Water(g)PropanoicAcid (g)Ethyl AcetateMassFractionWaterMassFractionPropanoicAcid MassFraction
A 16 2 10.1 0.57 0.07 0.36B 12 3 12.9 0.43 0.11 0.46C 10 4 13.4 0.36 0.15 0.49D 9 7 13.8 0.30 0.24 0.46E 6 14 20.0 0.15 0.35 0.50F 2 16 24.2 0.05 0.38 0.57
Mixture EthylAcetate(g)Water(g)PropanoicAcid (g)Ethyl AcetateMassFractionWaterMassFractionPropanoicAcid MassFraction
S 40 40 9 0.45 0.45 0.10T 37 37 15 0.42 0.42 0.16U 30 40 20 0.33 0.44 0.23
Mixture Initial FinalVolume(org) m
3
 Volume(aq) m
3
 Force(in air)NVolume(org) m
3
 Volume(aq) m
3
 Force(org) NForce(aq) N
S 0.000049 0.000042 0.3 0.000052 0.000046 0.28 0.23T 0.000054 0.000041 0.3 0.000058 0.000044 0.26 0.24U 0.000053 0.000043 0.3 0.000056 0.000046 0.26 0.26
Mixture Density, (org)Density, (aq)Mass of S
E
(org) gMass of S
W
(aq) gRatio of Mass of S
E
/Mass of S
W
 
S 679.5787 1783.8940 2.0387 7.1356 0.2857T 1019.3680 2038.7360 4.0775 6.1162 0.6667U 1359.1570 1359.1573 4.0775 4.0775 1.0000

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