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P. 1
Social Order

Social Order

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Published by Nathalie Dagmang

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Published by: Nathalie Dagmang on Mar 27, 2011
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12/30/2012

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Nathalie Dagmang2010-24702 BS Community NutritionJuly 16, 2010
I. Social order is a state in which the societys fundamental operations are carried outeasily and without interference. This can be attained if the institutions that compose the societyperform their tasks efficiently. At this state, a normal and organized way of interacting andbehaving is maintained among the members of the society.According to Thomas Hobbes, social order is achieved with the help of the socialcontract. His theory of social contract states that the society and its members agree tocooperate with each other in exchange of certain benefits (such as labor force and security)that they receive in doing so. Individuals sacrifice their independent decisions, rights andliberties in exchange for the security that the society gives them.Another theory on how to achieve social order is stated by Marx. He said that socialcohesion is based on the economic structure of the society which causes the interdependenceof its members.According to Talcott Parsons, social order is the set of social institutions determiningmoral behavior while according to Jurgen Habermas, all said factors plus communicative actioncreates social order. And lastly, as stated by Emile Durkheim, social order is a set of socialnorms, an aspect of culture, which is learned through socialization.Socialization is the process in which values and other aspects of culture are transmittedto or learned by an individual. He/she becomes aware of social patterns and roles wherehis/her own personality will be based upon. Humans are only blank pages when they are
 
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born. They do not have strong instincts. They do not know how to interact with people, or evento perform human actions. Because of this, socialization is a process that every human shouldundergo to be able to survive and develop and be able to perform his/her role in the societyand cooperate with the other members.Culture, also learned in the process of socialization, defines a society and distinguishes itand its members from others. It is composed of the material and non-material products of thegroup. Material culture is made up by the tangible products of the society while nonmaterialculture consists of its values, norms, language and beliefs. The values, specifically, dictate whatis good and bad, what is right and wrong, and what is desirable and undesirable. It guides theindividual in developing his/her own personality, how he/she is going to act and what willhis/her attitude towards things will be.The values of the society also shape its goals and principles. In effect, the members whohave adapted the values will unite to reach their common goal. They will be encouraged toefficiently perform their roles, and the tasks that accompany them, and to cooperate with othermembers.Norms, another part of the non material culture, are based on the values of the society.These give structure, pattern/uniformity and stability by serving as bases on how the memberswould act in specific situations. Without these, and other aspects of culture such as languageand beliefs, social interaction would be difficult, full of conflict, and even dangerous. If members of the society do not conform to the norms, or even know which norms to conform
 
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to, social interaction will be chaotic, thus threatening and interfering with the fundamentaloperations in the society.Therefore, internal social control can be achieved through the individualsacceptance/internalization of the norms of the group that he/she belongs to. The individualmay have accepted the norms of the group because of how he/she was socialized the beginningof his/her life. At this time, the norms that the individual learned seem the proper way, or evensometimes, the only way of handling things for him. They usually conform to the normsbecause they may not know any other way. Also, through exposure and repetition, the normsbecome habitual to the individual. Eventually, it would be difficult for the person to notconform to the norms and he/she will realize that following these will make his/her life easier.Another reason why people choose to conform to the norms is the utility andeffectiveness of these. They see that the norms are necessary for them to be able to interactwith each other easily and for the best interests of all. For example, people choose to line upwhen buying tickets, even if they know that not lining up and going straight to the front of theline would make things easier for them. This is because they know that they should line up tomake things fair and more organized. They also know that going straight to the front of the linewould only make the others mad and only create conflicts.The last reason why people conform to the norms is its use as group identification. Theyconform to a groups norms because they want to be identified as its member. For instance,those who live in the city will not wear bahag, although it seems an appropriate outfit for the

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