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315 Volume Finite Method of solidification of mold filled process

315 Volume Finite Method of solidification of mold filled process

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Published by Ioan Sorin Leoveanu
Complex geometry casting simulation. Volume Finite Method. Heat flow, Fluid Flow
Complex geometry casting simulation. Volume Finite Method. Heat flow, Fluid Flow

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Published by: Ioan Sorin Leoveanu on Mar 27, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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09/16/2014

 
X[@N@WL]HL OH[JKH@ VJNXOHNJ] F@C@[H NL L
CLN@WL CXOH]@Bč L Q]
JBHRXNX@ KH [X]CL]H
 
Munht`cun LD@] cr. ;/=114
 jbtjomr`h-khbhomr`h
 
08
X[@N@WL]HL OH[JKH@ VJNXOHNJ] F@C@[H NL LCLN@WL CXOH]@B
č
 L Q]JBHRXNX@ KH [X]CL]H. RJN@K@F@BL]HL LN@LGXNX@ [X]CL[
œhf nubr. kr. `cd. @jlc
-Rjr`c NHJVHLCX
Xc`vhrs`tlthl –[rlcs`nvlc`l‟, MrlŚjv
 
Hsth lmsjnvhct ln Xc`vhrs`tĂŢ`` –[rlcs`nvlc`l‟ k`c MrlŚjv, Flbuntlthl kh [hecjnjd`l BjcstrubŢ``njr kh OlŚ`c`,
R
hbŢ`l ut`nlgun Ś` thecjnjd`l sukĂr``. L hfhbtult stld`un nl X.
 
[rlbtjrun
 
k`c MrlŚjv Ś` nl @.Q.[.
Ã
ctjrsurl MuzĂunu`, lpj` l fjst `cd`chr prj`hbtlct nl @cst`tutun kh Bhrbhtlrh phctru Lutjvhe`bunh Ś`
[rlbtjlrh
 ‒ 
 
MrlŚjv, bl `cd`chr prj`hbtlct nl
K
hplrtlohctun pucŢ` ojtjlrh k`rhbtjlrh. K`c <055 hsth blkru k`klbt`b nl Xc`vhrs`tlthl –[rlcs`nvlc`l‟ k`c MrlŚjv, nl
B
lthkrl kh `cd`chr`l olthr`lnhnjr Ś` sukĂr``. Hsth kjbtjr `cd`chr ln Xc`vhrs`tĂŢ`` –Qjn`thec`bl‟ k`c MuburhŚt`, k`c =11=. L bjctr`mu`t nl prj`hbtlrhl pucŢ`njr ojtjlrh bu olrh kh v`rlrh phctru trlbtjlrh ldr`bjnh Ś` `ckustr`lnh, nl prj`hbtlrhl Ś` jojnjdlrhl strubtur`njr kh rhz`sthcŢĂ suklth phctru trlbtjlrh `ckustr`lnh. L pumn`blt olculnh Ś` ojcjdrlf`` ph pnlc
 
njbln, bhctrln Ś` ãc bjnlmjrlrh bu uc`vhrs`tĂŢ` k`c strĂ`cĂtlth, prhbuo Ś`
 
lrt`bjnh ãc rhv`sth Ś` munht`chnh ucjr bjcfhr`cŢh kh sphb`ln`tlth k`c ŢlrĂ Ś` k`c strĂ`cĂtlth.
 
]HWXOL[ Ãc nubrlrh s-
l lcln`zlt sbe`omun kh bĂnkurĂ pr`c bjcvhbŢ`h ãctrh ohtlnun
 
n`be`k Ś` bjcturun fjroh` bh vl f` uopnutĂ bu n`be`k. Ojkhnlrhl bíopunu` thro`b l fjst hfhbtultĂ pjrc`ck kh nl k`str`muŢ`l thophrltur`njr Ś` v`thzhnjr k`c ln`lgun tjp`t
, ãc ojohctun ãc blrh fjrol kh
turclrh l fjst uopnutĂ, p`hsl turcltĂ `ctríck ãc flzl kh
 
rĂb`rh. Khthro`clrhl cj`` flzh sjn`kh rhzuntlth ãc urol prjbhsunu` kh sjn`k`f`blrh, bl Ś` l ãctrhdunu` prjbhs kh br`stln`zlrh
, s-
l hfhbtult ph mlzl hst`oĂr`` frlbŢ`h` sjn`kh shplrlth k`c tjp`turĂ
, ãc `cthrvlnun
bupr`cs ãctrh thophrlturl n`be`kus Ś` sjn`ku
s
. LbhlstĂ prjpjrŢ`h kh olthr`ln sjn`k`f`blt k`c tjp`turĂ l fjst ut`n`zltĂ nl khthro`clrhl blct`tĂŢ`` kh bĂnkurĂ hn`mhrlth ãc `cthr`jrun vjnuohnjr kh bjctrjn ãc prjbhsun kh sjn`k`f`blrh. L rhzuntlt lstfhn pjz`Ţ`l unt
`oh` zjch k`c
p`hsĂ blrh sh sjn`k`f`bĂ
rhtlsurl prhbuo
Ś` k`str`muŢ`l thophrltur`njr k`c p`hsl turcltĂ Ś` k`c fjrol kh turclrh. LbhlstĂ ohtjkĂ
 
phro`th j hst`olrh rlp`kĂ Ś` hf`b`hctĂ l zjchnjr ãc blrh pjt lpĂ
rhl
olbrjshdrhdlŢ``, l zjchnjr k`c blrh pjrchŚth prjbhsun kh
sjn`k`f`blrh,
bl Ś` l drlk`hcŢ`njr kh thophrlturĂ bh sh prjkub ãc p`hsĂ ãc prjbhsun kh sjn`k`f`blrh Ś`
, khb`,
l jr`hctĂr`` Ś` t`punu` kh o`brjstrubturĂ jmŢ`cuth.
 Qhctru l rhzjnvl prjmnhol burdhr`` fnu`kunu` ã
c bjctlbt bu phrhŢ`` f`bŚ` l` fjroh` kh turclrh bít Ś` ãc bjctlbt bu phrhŢ
`` ojm`n` l` flzh` sjn`k`f`blth,
l fjst fjnjs`tĂ ohtjkl Olrihrs Lck Bhnns bu sjnvhr kh t`pun LK@
-RJ], `lr phctru blzun bíopunu` thro`b ãc flzhnh sjn`kh s-
l ut`n`zlt ohtjkl `opn`b`tĂ.
 LMR[]LB[ [eh ehlt fnjw hst`olt`jc mhtwhhc teh ohnt lck sjn`k pelsh telt bjcs`st `c sjn`k`f`blthk lnnjy jr slck ojnk `s hst`olth. [eh thophrlturh k`str`mut`jc, ehlt dhchrlthk my v`sbjus fnjw lck fnu`k sphhks `c teh ohnt lck teh thophrlturh k`str`mut`jc `c teh ojnk wlnn lck jmstlbnhs `c teh ojohct wehc teh ojnk wls bjopnhthny funn w`te ohnt wls ushk ls `c`t`ln bjck`t`jcs fjr teh sjn`k`f`blt`jcs lclnys`s wehc teh ohnt `s bjjnhk. [eh chw pelshs jmtl`chk frjo ohnt sjn`k`f`blt`jc lck lnn teh brystlnn`zlt`jc prjbhss wls olkh my ush jf teh n`qu`kus lck sjn`kus thophrlturh jf teh blsthk lnnjy. [j kj telt, teh sjn`kh frlbt`jc wls ushk fjr hvhry bjctrjn vjnuoh telt `s `c telt thophrlturh rlcdh. Rj, teh ehlt dhchrlthk my pelsh trlcsfjrolt`jc wls hst`olth my hvhry bjctrjn vjnuoh lck ushk `c teh cuohr`bln ehlt fnjw lclnys`s. @c telt wly wh dht teh thophrlturh drlk`hcts, teh pjs`t`jcs frjo wehrh teh sjn`k`f`blt`jc mhd`c, teh sphhk jf sjn`k`f`hk frjct lck teh nlst ohnt sjn`k`f`hk. Rj teh shdrhdlt`jcs telt blc jbbur `c teh blst`cd prjbhss blc mh hst`olthk lck teh o`brjstrubturh typh lck jr`hctlt`jc blc mh hst`olth. [eh sjnvhr lndjr`teos `s mlshk jc funny `opn`b`t ohtejk fjr mjte fnu`k fnjw `c teh ohnt `c teh bjck`t`jc jf f`xhk wlnns fjr teh mjucklry w`te teh ojnk lck cjc f`xhk wlnns fjr teh mjucklry mhtwhhc teh fnu`k ohnt lck teh sjn`k`f`blt`jc frjcts. [j sjnvh telt prjmnho, teh OLB w`t RJ] lndjr`teos whrh ushk. [eh ehlt fnjw `c teh sjn`k pelshs wls sjnvhk us`cd teh funny `opn`b`t ohtejk.
<. @C[]JKXBH]H
Lcln`zl prjbhsunu` kh sjn`k`f`blrh l uch` tjp`tur` fjrolth k`ctr-uc ln`lg ohtln`b hsth, k`c pucbt kh vhkhrh olteholt`b,
uc prjbhs kh j bjopnhx`tlth r`k`bltĂ. Ln`lgun lfnlt ãc flzl n`be`kĂ, tjp`turl, blrh sh dĂshŚth ãc fjrol kh
turclrh ãc ojohctun ãcbeh`hr`` uopnhr`` fjroh`, hsth
blrlbthr`zlt kh j lcuo`tĂ k`str`muŢ`h l thophrltur`njr,
v`thzhnjr,
l bĂnkur`njr k`s`plth pr`c frhbl
rh ví
sbjlsĂ
 prhbuo
Ś`
kh
uc pjs`m`n drlk kh turmunhcŢĂ. Kh lshohchl, nl ojohctun uopnhr`` fjroh`, ãc phrhŢ`` lbhsth`l
,
bl Ś` ãc
o`hzur`nh bh j bjopuc,
hx`stĂ j lcuo`tĂ k`str`muŢ`h kh thophrlturĂ. JmŢ`chrhl lbhstjr klth pr`c oĂsurĂtjr` k`rhbth
 
B]HL[@V@[L[H
 
@CVHC[@Bč ‒
 
]JMJ[@Bč
 
Munht`cun LD@] cr. ;/=114
 jbtjomr`h-khbhomr`h
 
06
hsth hxtrho kh k`f`b`nĂ
,
khŚ` lbhsth oĂr`o` kh `ctrlrh `cfnuhcŢhlzĂ olgjr prjbhsun kh sjn`k`f`blrh. Lstfhn, bu uŚur`cŢĂ pjt f` jmŢ`cuth p`hsh bu k`vhrsh khfhbth kh turclrh Ś` be`lr bu prjpr`htĂŢ` ohblc`bh chslt`sfĂbĂtjlrh. Qhctru l
hv`tl
uc prjbhs hxphr`ohctln nlmjr`js Ś` fjlrth sbuop, bl Ś` phctru l sh puthl trhbh sprh thecjnjd`` blrh sĂ ls`durh
 prjp
r`htĂŢ` suphr`jlrh olthr`lnu
nu` k`c p`hshnh turclth, ãc unt`ohnh khblkh s-
l trhbut nl ut`n`zlrh ph sblrĂ bít ol` nlrdĂ l ohtjkhnjr kh ojkhnlrh cuohr`bĂ ãc lbhst kjohc`u ln Śt``cŢh` olthr`lnhnjr.
 
Lstfhn, kh rhdunĂ
, suct ut`n`zlth k`vhrsh prjkush sjft, hxtrho kh sbuoph,
Ś` blrh chbhs`tĂ Ś` stlŢ`` kh nubru fjlrth puthrc`bh.
 Xt`n`zlrhl prjkushnjr sjft
trlk`Ţ`jclnh, mlzlth ph ohtjkl hnhohcthnjr f`c
`th, hsth
n`o`tltĂ kh drlkun kh k`f`buntlth ln prjmnhoh` lcln`zlth Ś` kh drhutlthl bupnĂr`` fhcjohchnjr kh olrh bjopnhx`tlth oltholt`bĂ lpĂruth nl ojkhnlrhl bjrhbtĂ l zjchnjr kh trhbhrh phctru bíopun thro`b, bhn ln `opunsur`njr Ś` ln
trlcsfhrunu` kh olsh ã
ctrh flzhnh cju brhlth Ś` flzl n`be`kĂ. Kh lshohchl, ãc blzun uopnhr`` fjroh`, fjlrth puŢ`ch
 prjkush sjft lu blplb`tlthl kh l s`ounl bjrhbt frjct`hrl
n`mhrĂ. Rbr`hrhl ucjr ojkunh blrh sĂ rhln`zhzh lbhst khz`khrlt bjckubh nl oĂr`rhl krlolt`bĂ l t`opunu` kh
blnbun,
be`lr klbĂ s
-
lr bucjlŚth ojkun kh fjroltlrh l
vlr`lm`nhnjr ut`n`zlt ãc prjdrloun phctru blrh sh sbr`h
lpn`blŢ`l.
 
Lbhstl hsth ojt`vun phctru blrh l fjst hnlmjrltĂ nubrlrhl kh flŢĂ. ]hzjnvlrhl lbhstjr prjmnhoh s
-
l fĂbut
ut`n`zíck ohtjkl vjnuohnjr f`c`th phctru l khsbr`h ltít flzl
fnu`kĂ lfnltĂ ãc prjbhsun kh sjn`k`f`blrh bít Ś` flzl sjn`kĂ cju brhltĂ. K`c ount`tuk`chl kh ohtjkh khst`clth lcln`zh` cuohr`bh l prjbhsunu` kh trlcsfjrolrh kh flzĂ, l fjst lnhlsĂ j ohtjkĂ mlzltĂ ph hxpr`olrhl bíopunu` thro`b
 k`c
vjnuohnh f`c`th blrh sh sjn`k`f`bĂ bu lgutjrun frlbŢ`h` kh trlcsfjrolrh kh flzĂ Ś` hst`olrhl
, lstfhn,
l bĂnkur`` k`s`plth
ãc lbhsth vjnuoh f`c`th, uroíck bl, pr`ctr-uc pls kh rhk`str`mu`rh l lbhsth`l ãctrh vjnuohnh f`c`th vhb`ch,
sĂ sh
khthro`ch bít ol` prhb`s thophrlturl k`c lbhsthl. R-l hv`tlt lstfhn ut`n`zlrhl ohtjkh` hctlnp`h`, ount ol`
 prhthcŢ`jlsĂ
 k`c pucbt kh vhkhrh ln rhsurshnjr kh blnbun, bít
Ś` ohtjkl bĂnkur`` nlthcth hbe`vlnhcth blrh bjckubh nl j hst`olrh ol` drjs`hrĂ l prjbhsunu`.
 [hstlrhl prjdrlounu` khzvjntlt ãc O`brjsjft V`suln B/B++ s-
l fĂbut phctru j thecjnjd`h kh turclrh bh trlthlzĂ rhln`zlrhl uch` p`hsh
turclth,
lvíck j bjopnhx`tlth dhjohtr`bĂ r`k`bltĂ, Ś`
 phctru uc ln`lg m`clr.
=. LCLN@WL CXOH]@Bč
 
Qrjbhsun bjcs`khrĂ bucjsbuth k`str`muŢ``nh thophrl
-
tur`njr k`c ln`lgun tjp`t Ś` k`c phrŢ`` Ś` o`hzur`nh fjroh`.
Dr`kun ut`n`zlt phctru blzun tjp`tur`` hsth ucun kh t`pun
khblnlt, sphb`f`b rhzjnvĂr`` prjmnhohnjr kh burdhrh l
fnu`kunu` bu ohtjkl vjnuohnjr f`c`th, ãc t`op bh phctru bíopun thro
`b Ś` bjcshrvlrhl olsh
njr s-l fjnjs`t uc dr`k cjroln.
=.<. H
bulŢ``nh bh duvhrchlzĂ prjbhsun
 
Qhctru l rhln`zl ojkhnun olt
holt`b khst`clt s`ounĂr``
suct vlnlm`nh `pjthzhnh s`opn`f`bltjlrh khsbr`sh ãc nubrlrhl
khst`cltĂ uopnhr`` fjroh` bu n`be`
k. Fjrol dhch
rlnĂ l hbulŢ``njr k`fhrhcŢ`lnh bh lnbĂtu`hsb s`sthoun kh hbulŢ`` hsth kltĂ ãc tlmhnun <.
 
u vRt x y x x y y
 (<)
uckh
 
 
,
Ś`
 
lu shoc`f`blŢ``nh
 k`c tlmhnun<.
 
=.=. Bjck`Ţ``nh ph frjct`hrĂ Ś` prjpr`htĂŢ`nh
fnu`kunu` lcln`zlt
Bjck`Ţ``nh `c`Ţ`lnh Ś
`
 ph frjct`hrĂ suct prhzhctlth ãc
bjct`culrh.
[hophrlturl ltojsfhr`bĂ hsth kh 211I 
, bu uc bjhf`b`hct kh trlcsfhr thro`b lvíck vlnjlrhl ohk`h
bupr`csĂ ãctrh <111
 T/o
=
I, ãc blzun bjctlbtunu` ãctrh
ln`lgun kh lnuo`c`u tjp`t Ś` fjroĂ
,
Ś` 411 T/o
=
I, ãctrh fjctl n
`be`kĂ Ś` fjroĂ. [rlcsfhrun thro`b, ohk`u, kh bĂnkurĂ ph frjct`hrl n`mhrĂ, ãctrh tjp`turĂ Ś` dlzun hx`sthct ãc fjroĂ hsth 81
 T/o
=
I, phctru ln`lghnh kh lnuo`c`u,
Ś`
=1 T/o
=
I, phctru fjcth
. Qh frjct`hrhnh ãctrh tjp`turĂ Ś`  phrhŢ`` fjroh` sh bjcs`khrĂ uc sbe
`om thro`b kh t`p
bjcvhbŢ`h, bl Ś` phctru frjct`hrl n`mhrĂ. Ltucb` bíck tjp`turl `ctrĂ ãc bjctlbt bu phrhŢ`` fjroh`, bjhf`b`hcŢ`` kh bjcvhbŢ`h k`ctrh fnu`k Ś` phrhŢ`` sjn`z` l` fjroh` sh blnbunhlzĂ ãc fucbŢ`h kh cuohrhnh
Qr
 
Ś`
]h
x  
, pr`c rhzjnvlrhl bu lgutjrun uch` ohtjkh mlzlth ph bhnunh
lutjolth l burdhr`` fnu`kunu` k`c bhnunl lfnltĂ ãc bjctlbt bu flzl sjn`kĂ. Lstfhn, sum fjroĂ lk`ohcs`jclnĂ
, s`sthoun kh
hbulŢ`` ãc blzun bhn ol` khs ãctínc`t7
 
 xu yu x yvu
 99
 
sh dĂshŚth ãc tlmhnun =.
 
[lmhnun <
[`pu
n hbulŢ`h`
 
R
Hb. bjcshrvĂr``
olsh`. < 1 1
Hb.bjcshrvĂr``
`opunsur`njr
u V`thzl ph
k`rhbŢ`l U
 
 x
 d  x
 
v V`thzl ph
k`rhbŢ`l P 
 
 y
 d  y
 
Hb. bjcshrvĂr``
hchrd`h`
[ [hophrlturl
b
 
q
 
 
X[@N@WL]HL OH[JKH@ VJNXOHNJ] F@C@[H NL L
CLN@WL CXOH]@Bč L Q]
JBHRXNX@ KH [X]CL]H
 
Munht`cun LD@] cr. ;/=114
 jbtjomr`h-khbhomr`h
 
04
[lmhnun =
F`d. <.
=.2. R
be`omlrhl kh flzĂ
 
Ltucb` bíck ohtlnun tjp`t sh sjn`k`f`bĂ
, lrh njb
hn`mhrlrhl bĂnkur`` nlthcth kh sjn`k`f`blrh. Ohtjkl kh blnbun sh mlzhlzĂ ph hst`olrhl frlbŢ`h` s
jn`kh hx`sthcth ãc `cthr`jrun bhnunhnjr bu n`be`k lfnlth ãc `cthrvlnun kh
thophrlturĂ bupr`cs ãctrh thophrltur 
l
n`be`kus Ś` sjn`kus. Hxprhs`l thophrltur`` ãc fucbŢ`h kh prjpjrŢ`l flzh` cju
brhlth ãc `cthr`jrun vjnuounu` f`c`t hsth7
V N
 f  B [ \t
 (5) uckh7
 f 
 hsth
 prjpjrŢ`l ãc blrh flzl sjn`kĂ jbupĂ vjnuoun
f`c`t ãc blrh lrh njb trlcsfjrolrhl9
\
 N
 
 ‒ 
 
bĂnkurl nlthctĂ
hn`m
hrltĂ kh flzl n`be`kĂ blrh s
-l sjn`k`f`blt.
Qr`c rhfjrounlrhl throhcunu` bh hxpr`oĂ hchrd`l dhchrltĂ pr`c sjn`k`f`blrh, sh jmŢ
`ch7
R  N N
 f f   \ \t [
 (0) Qr`c `ctrjkubhrhl hxprhs`h` hchrd`h` dhchrlth ãc `cthr`jrun vjnuounu` f`c`t,
sh jmŢ`ch7
 
V N
 f   B \ [
 (<1)
Qhctru l rhzjnvl cuohr`b hbulŢ`l (<1)
,
trhmu`h sĂ putho hxpr`ol vlr`lŢ`l frlbŢ`h` sjn`kh ãc fucbŢ`h kh thophrlturĂ
,
Ś` cu
 ãc
fucbŢ`h kh t`op
,
bl ãc hbulŢ`l (0). ]hnlŢ`l k`ctrh frlbŢ`l sjn`kĂ Ś` thophrlturĂ khp`ckh kh t`pun kh ln`lg blrh sh sjn`k`f`bĂ. Qhctru l j puthl hxpr`ol
,
trhmu`h bucjsbutĂ
k`ldrlol kh trlcsfjrolrh l ln`lgunu` rhsphbt`v. Lstfhn, fr 
lbŢ`l sjn`kĂ pjlth nul vlnjr` ãctrh 1 Ś` <
,
ãc fucbŢ`h kh thophrlturl nl blrh sh dĂshŚth ln`lgun ãc vjnuoun kh bjctrjn lcln`zlt. KlbĂ thophrlturl lbhstu`l hsth suphr`jlrĂ
thophrltur`` n`be`kus, ltucb`
 f 
 ? 19
klbĂ thophrlturl hsth
 Olsl
1~~
 
 yv xu
 
(=)
  x- `opuns
====
~~]h<~~~~~~~~
 yu yuu N yvv xuu
 N
 
(2)
 Blnkurl
 y yv xu
 N
~~Qr ]h<~~~~~~
 =
 
(;)
 
 Fjrol sjnuŢ 
`h`7
 N Cuse
 f   x x
 
(8)
  phctru `cthrfl
 Ţ 
l tjp`tur 
Ă
-phrhth, fjrol7
c No x
 l Cus
 ]hQr 
 
(6)
  phctru `cthrfl
 Ţ 
l tjp`tur 
Ă
-zjc
Ă
 sjn`k`f`blt 
Ă7
 
=<<<<<
 Qr 
 
]hQr 
 oc No x
 bml Cus
 
(4)
 

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