Production by Aerobic andAnaerobic Digestion of Bio-Waste
Pavan Kumar P N, Manu Kumar S, Ashish K K
E & C Department, MSRIT
This paper is intended to address the most importanttopic of today's world,
„Energy Shortage‟. One way of solving it
is to make all the rural areas in the country, self sufficient intheir power needs. Since agriculture and animal husbandry aretwo main occupations of the rural masses, and since theycontribute to tonnes of waste every month, we present two novelideas - aerobic and anaerobic digestion of bio-waste to generatethe required electric power for the village. The aerobic digestionpit achieves a high thermal energy output. The anaerobicdigester generates methane using a custom bio-waste processorthat increases the output of resulting biogas (mostly CH
). Wepresent the use of methanogens that increase the amount of methane produced by ~18%. We also note that by using hyper-thermophiles, we can increase the temperature of the aerobicdigester to a maximum of 95
C to increase thermal output.The resulting methane can be used to generate electricity. Theheat from the aerobic digester can be used to either generateelectricity or increase the temperature of anaerobic reactionwhich further increases the methane output.
Aerobic Decomposition Plant, Anaerobicdecomposition plant, Methanogens, Bio-Waste Processor.
Agriculture has to this day remained as one of our
country’s major occupations, and the farmer is the backbone
of our country. Hence, the government has provided many benefits and subsidiaries to the rural population, power or electricity at lower rates being one of them. But, in the last 2-3
years, the country has been facing heavy “power shortages”
due to irregular rain patterns, and longer summers.The solutions we intend to implement in these villages is thatof processing of bio-waste found in and around the ruralgeography and extract energy from it and use it to generateelectricity.The proposed idea aims at simplicity and efficiency while being clean and cost efficient to adopt. The idea aims atconverting all waste available in the rural areas efficiently toenergy. Separate digesters are used for plant and animalwaste for efficient conversion into energy and mathematical proofs for these are given later in the article.II.
RESULTSPlant and animal waste are collected from in and around therural area in consideration and are piled up for use in thereactors/digesters.We intend to use separate digestion processes for plant andanimal waste i.e. aerobic process for decomposition of plantwaste and anaerobic process for decomposition of animalwaste respectively.The main intention for using different processes is that theseparate digestion pits aim to achieve better efficiencyindividually in converting wastes to energy, as animal wastedo not efficiently decompose under aerobic conditions as theydo under anaerobic conditions, and vice versa for the plantwaste.
Working of the Aerobic Decomposition Plant
Plants decompose under two processes - aerobic andanaerobic processes. Aerobic process is where the glucose andother carbohydrates are oxidized in presence of a lot of oxygen to give CO
O. Anaerobic process is whereglucose is oxidized in insufficient oxygen to give methane as a byproduct along with other gases.Chemically, anaerobic decomposition employs an electrontransport chain, with inorganic molecules other than oxygenused as a final electron acceptor.An example for the intermediate process can beglucose + 3SO
= - 453 kJ.The terminal electron acceptors (sulfate SO
) have smaller reduction potentials than O
, i.e. meaning that less energy isreleased per oxidized molecule of primary electron donor inthe above reactions) than in aerobic respiration (i.e. the process of aerobic decomposition is less energeticallyefficient).The equation for the oxidative decomposition of glucose isgiven asC
O + 686kcalSince the molar mass of glucose is 180 gm, 1000kg (1tonne ) of assorted plant waste contains 5555.55 moles of glucose.