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Table Of Contents

1.2.1. Linear motion
1.2.2. Rotational motion
1.3. Electrical Energy
1.4. Chemical Energy
1.5. Nuclear Energy
1.6. Thermal Energy
1.7. Thermodynamics and Heat Energy
1.7.1. Quantity of heat
1.7.2. Mechanical equivalent of heat
1.7.3. The first law of thermodynamics
1.7.4. The second law of thermodynamics
1.7.4.1. Ideal heat engine
1.7.4.2. Practical heat engine
1.7.4.3. Ideal reverse heat engine
1.8. Entropy
1.8.1. Entropy in heat work systems
1.8.2. Entropy on a cosmic scale
1.9. Power
1.10. Units and Conversion Factors
1.11. Problems on Energy and Power
References
2.1. Energy Input to the Earth
2.1.1. Solar radiation rate and annual variation
2.1.2. Terrestrial energy from inside the earth
2.1.3. Tidal (gravitational) input energy
2.2. Energy Flow upon the Earth from Natural Sources
2.3. Energy Outflow from the Earth
2.4. Energy Stored Within the Fossil Fuels
2.5. Energy Production and Consumption
2.5.1. Energy consumption in the world
2.5.2. Energy production and use in the UK
2.5.3. Energy production and use in the USA
2.5.4. World fossil fuel production and consumption
2.6. Risks Associated with Energy Systems
2.6.1. Industrial accidents and industrial diseases
2.6.2. Large-scale accidents and sabotage
2.6.3. Management of energy waste
2.6.4. Ecosystem effects
2.6.5. Water supply problems
2.6.6. Emissions
2.6.6.1. Carbon dioxide emissions
2.6.6.2. Gaseous emissions and the “greenhouse” effect
2.7. Summary Where Do We Go from Here?
2.7.1. An energy strategy
2.8. Problems and Review Questions
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Some Basic Electrical Relationships
3.2.1. Voltage, current and power
3.2.2. Worked examples on electrical circuits
3.3. The Generation of Electricity
3.4. The Siting of Electrical Power Plants
3.4.1. Fuel supply
3.4.2. Water supply
3.4.3. Land elevation
3.4.4. Road and rail access
3.4.5. Height of the structures
3.4.6. Disposal of waste products
3.4.7. Proximity to populated areas
3.4.8. Environmental implications
3.5. World Electricity Consumption
3.6. UK Electricity
3.6.1. Consumption and supply
3.7. US Electricity Consumption and Production
3.8. Combined Heat and Power (CHP)
3.8.1. CHP in the UK
3.8.2. CHP in the USA [15]
3.9. Efficient Utilisation of Electrical Energy
3.9.1. Avoiding waste
3.9.2. Monitoring and control
3.9.3. Redesigning to reduce energy costs
3.9.4. Maintenance of equipment
3.9.5. Power factor correction
3.9.6. Maintenance of supply current waveform
3.9.7. Choice and use of electric motors
3.9.8. Load factor
3.9.9. Choice of lighting systems
3.10. Problems and Review Questions
4.1. Introduction
4.1.1. Composition and ranking of coal
4.1.2. Coal mining
4.2. World Reserves, Production, and Consumption of Coal
4.2.1. World coal reserves
4.2.2. World coal production
4.2.3. World coal consumption
4.2.4. UK coal production and consumption
4.5.2. Combined-cycle generation
4.6. Liquid Fuels from Coal
4.6.1. Indirect liquefaction
4.6.2. Pyrolysis
4.6.3. Solvent extraction
4.6.4. Direct hydrogenation (catalytic liquefaction)
4.7. Problems and Review Questions
5.1. Introduction
5.2. History and Development of the Petroleum Industry
5.2.1. The Seven Sisters [6]
5.2.2. European oilfields
5.2.3. OPEC
5.3. World Oil Reserves
5.4. World Production and Consumption of Crude Oil
5.4.1. World oil production
5.4.2. World oil consumption
5.4.3. UK oil production and consumption [10–12]
5.4.4. US oil production and consumption
5.5. Synthetic Crude Oil
5.5.1. Shale oil
5.5.2. Tar sands
5.6. Environmental Issues
5.7. Problems and Review Questions
6.1. Introduction
6.2. History and Development
6.3. Natural Gas Reserves
6.4. Production and Consumption of Natural Gas
6.4.1. World natural gas production
6.4.2. World natural gas consumption
6.4.3. UK natural gas production and consumption
6.4.4. US natural gas production and consumption
6.5. Coal-Bed Methane
6.5.1. World reserves of coal-bed methane
6.5.2. US reserves of coal-bed methane
6.6. Natural Gas Hydrates
6.7. Environmental Aspects of Natural Gas
6.8. Synthetic Gas from Coal
6.9. Problems and Review Questions
7.6.5. Molten magma
7.7. Worldwide Applications of Uses of Geothermal Energy
7.8. Geothermal Prospects in the UK
7.8.1. Shallow drilling
7.8.2. Worked example
7.9. Geothermal Uses in the USA and Elsewhere
7.9.1. Hot springs and bathing spas (balneology) [5]
7.9.2. Agriculture
7.9.3. Aquaculture
7.9.4. Industry
7.10. Geothermal District Heating [5]
7.11. Geothermal Heat Pumps [5]
7.12. Electricity Generation from Geothermal Sources
7.12.1. Worldwide geothermal electrical power production [5]
7.12.2. Technologies of geothermal electrical power generation [5]
7.12.3. Locations of geothermal electricity-generating stations
7.13. Environmental Features of Geothermal Power
7.13.1. Geothermal site exploration and development
7.13.2. Protection of the local atmosphere
7.13.3. Protection of ground water [5]
7.13.4. Enhancement of reservoir water
7.13.5. Ecological effects of geothermal plants
7.13.6. Effects on local geological structure
7.14. Problems and Review Questions
8.1. Basic Atomic Theory
8.2. Basic Nuclear Theory
8.2.1. Nuclear fission
8.2.2. Worked examples
8.3. Radioactivity
8.3.1. Nature of radioactivity
8.3.2. Energy and decay rate
8.3.3. Worked examples
8.4. Nuclear Radiation
8.4.1. Forms of radiation
8.4.2. Units of measurement of radiation
8.4.3. Effects of nuclear radiation
8.4.4. Sources and amounts of nuclear radiation
8.4.4.1. Natural radiation sources
8.4.4.2. Man-made sources
8.4.5. Uses of nuclear radiation
8.4.5.1. Geological dating
8.4.5.2. Archaeological dating
8.4.5.3. Medical tracer elements
8.4.5.4. Small nuclear power packs
8.4.5.5. Biological effects on human tissue
8.5. Nuclear Reactors
8.5.1. Thermal (fission) reactors
8.5.2. Uranium supplies
8.5.3. Plutonium
8.5.4. Fast breeder reactors
8.5.5. Reactor safety
8.5.6. Nuclear reactor accidents
8.5.6.1. Three Mile Island
8.5.6.2. Chernobyl
8.6.1. Sources of waste
8.6.2. Waste disposal
8.6.3. Terrorist action
8.7. Nuclear-Powered Electricity Generation
8.7.1. Nuclear generation in the USA
8.7.2. Nuclear generation in the UK [24]
8.8. Nuclear Fusion
8.8.2. Nuclear fusion reactors
8.8.2.1. Nuclear plasma properties
8.8.2.2. Heating of the plasma [28]
8.8.2.3. Plasma confinement
8.8.2.4. Fusion reactor research
8.9. Problems and Review Questions
9.1. Hydroelectric Power Generation
9.1.1. Principles of hydroelectric plant operation
9.1.2. Types of hydraulic turbine
9.1.2.1. Impulse turbines
9.1.2.2. Reaction turbines
9.1.2.3. Axial flow turbines
9.1.3. Pumped storage systems
9.1.4. Worked examples on hydroelectric power generation
9.2. Tidal Power Schemes
9.2.1. Tidal power sites
9.2.2. Principles of tidal power operation
9.2.3. Costs of tidal barrage schemes
9.2.5. Features of tidal barrage schemes
9.2.6. Worked examples on tidal energy schemes
9.3. Wave Power
9.3.1. Basic properties of ideal deep-water waves [5]
9.3.2. Power extractable from practical deep-water waves
9.3.3. Worked examples on wave energy
9.3.4. Types of wave power converters
9.3.5. Worked examples on wave-energy devices
10.2.1. Wind energy supply in Europe
10.2.2. Wind energy supply in the USA
10.3. Theoretical Power Available in the Wind
10.4. Theoretical Maximum Power Extractable from the Wind
10.5. Practical Power Extractable from the Wind
10.5.1. Power coefficient
10.5.2. Axial thrust (pressure)
10.5.3. Tip-speed ratio (TSR)
10.5.4. Solidity factor
10.5.5. Shaft torque and power
10.6. Efficiency of Wind-Powered Electricity Generation
10.7. Large Wind Machine Systems
10.7.1. Historical background
10.7.2. Facing the wind the yaw effect
10.7.3. Centrifugal forces
10.7.4. Gyroscopic forces and vibrations
10.7.5. Modern large wind power installations
10.7.6. Worked examples on wind turbine operation
10.8. Vertical Axis Wind Machines
10.8.1. The Savonius design
10.8.2. The Darrieus design
10.8.3. Other forms of vertical axis machine
10.9. Small and Medium Size Machines
10.10.1. Electricity generator systems
10.10.2. Small electrical generators
10.11. Wind Machine Site Selection
10.12. Pros and Cons of Wind-Generated Electrical Power
10.13. Problems and Review Questions
11.1. Radiation from the Sun
11.2. Seasonal Variation of Solar Radiation
11.3. Classification of the Collection of Solar Energy
11.4. Solar Water Heating (Domestic)
11.4.1. The “greenhouse” effect
11.4.2. Solar flat-plate collectors
11.4.3. A typical domestic solar water heating system
11.4.4. Worked examples involving solar flat-plate collectors
11.5. Solar Water Heating (Industrial)
11.5.1. Solar tracking systems
11.5.1.1. Parabolic dish collector
11.5.1.2. Solar power tower
11.5.1.3. Linear focus collectors
11.5.2. Solar non-tracking systems
11.5.2.1. Evacuated tube collectors
11.5.2.2. Compound parabolic concentrator
11.6. Passive Solar Space Heating of Buildings
11.6.1. Direct gain solar systems
11.6.2. Indirect gain solar systems
11.6.2.1. Thermal storage wall
11.6.2.2. Solar greenhouse (sunspace)
11.6.2.3. Roof pond
11.6.2.4. Solar salt pond [3]
11.7. Problems and Review Questions
12.1. Basic Features of Solar Cells and Solar Systems
12.2. Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity
12.3. Physical Nature of Semiconductor Materials [6]
12.3.1. Group-3 (acceptor) impurities
12.3.2. Group-5 (donor) impurities
12.4. Photovoltaic Materials
12.4.1. Crystalline silicon (c Si)
12.4.2. Amorphous (uncrystalline) silicon (a Si)
12.4.3. Materials other than silicon
12.7. Electrical Output Properties of the Solar Photovoltaic Cell
12.7.1. Maximum power delivery
12.7.2. Equivalent circuits
12.7.3. Load lines in the current voltage plane
12.7.4. Arrays of solar photovoltaic cells
12.7.5. Effect of temperature on solar cell operation
12.8. Applications of Photovoltaic Cells
12.9. The Future Challenge for Photovoltaics
12.10. Worked Examples
12.11. Problems and Review Questions
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Published by: pizzwe on Mar 27, 2011
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