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Short Math Guide for Latex by Michel Downes

Short Math Guide for Latex by Michel Downes

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Short Math Guide for L

A

TEXMichael DownesAmerican Mathematical Society

Version 1.09 (2002-03-22), currently available at

http://www.ams.org/tex/short-math-guide.html

1. Introduction

This is a concise summary of recommended features in L

A

TEX and acouple of extension packages for

writing math formulas

. Readers needing greater depthof detail are referred to the sources listed in the bibliography, especially [Lamport], [LUG],[AMUG], [LFG], [LGG], and [LC]. A certain amount of familiarity with standard L

A

TEXterminology is assumed; if your memory needs refreshing on the L

A

TEX meaning of

command

,

optional argument

,

environment

,

package

, and so forth, see [Lamport].The features described here are available to you if you use L

A

TEX with two extensionpackages published by the American Mathematical Society:

amssymb

and

amsmath

. Thus,the source ﬁle for this document begins with

\documentclass{article}\usepackage{amssymb,amsmath}

The

amssymb

package might be omissible for documents whose math symbol usage is rela-tively modest; the easiest way to test this is to leave out the

amssymb

reference and see if any math symbols in the document produce ‘Undeﬁned control sequence’ messages.Many noteworthy features found in other packages are not covered here; see Section 10.Regarding math symbols, please note especially that the list given here is not intended to becomprehensive, but to illustrate such symbols as users will normally ﬁnd already present intheir L

A

TEX system and usable without installing any additional fonts or doing other setupwork.If you have a need for a symbol not shown here, you will probably want to consult

TheComprehensive L

A

T E X Symbols List

(Pakin):

http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/info/symbols/comprehensive/

.

2. Inline math formulas and displayed equations

2.1. The fundamentals

Entering and leaving math mode in L

A

TEX is normally done withthe following commands and environments.

inline formulas displayed equations

$

...

$\(

...

\)\[...\]

unnumbered

\begin{equation*}

...

\end{equation*}

unnumbered

\begin{equation}

...

\end{equation}

automaticallynumbered

Note.

Alternative environments

\begin{math}

...

\end{math}

,

\begin{displaymath}

...

\end{displaymath}

are seldom needed in practice. Using the plain TEX notation

$$

...

$$

for displayed equations is not recom-mended. Although it is not expressly forbidden in L

A

TEX, it is not documented anywhere in the L

A

TEX bookas being part of the L

A

TEX command set, and it interferes with the proper operation of various featuressuch as the

fleqn

option.

Environments for handling equation groups and multi-line equations are shown in Table 1.1

Short Math Guide for L

A

T E X, version

1.09 (2002-03-22) 2Table 1: Multi-line equations and equation groups (vertical lines indicating nominal mar-gins).

\begin{equation}\label{xx}\begin{split}a& =b+c-d\\& \quad +e-f\\& =g+h\\& =i\end{split}\end{equation}

a

=

b

+

c

−

d

+

e

−

f

=

g

+

h

=

i

(2.1)

\begin{multline}a+b+c+d+e+f\\+i+j+k+l+m+n\end{multline}

a

+

b

+

c

+

d

+

e

+

f

+

i

+

j

+

k

+

l

+

m

+

n

(2.2)

\begin{gather}a_1=b_1+c_1\\a_2=b_2+c_2-d_2+e_2\end{gather}

a

1

=

b

1

+

c

1

(2.3)

a

2

=

b

2

+

c

2

−

d

2

+

e

2

(2.4)

\begin{align}a_1& =b_1+c_1\\a_2& =b_2+c_2-d_2+e_2\end{align}

a

1

=

b

1

+

c

1

(2.5)

a

2

=

b

2

+

c

2

−

d

2

+

e

2

(2.6)

\begin{align}a_{11}& =b_{11}&a_{12}& =b_{12}\\a_{21}& =b_{21}&a_{22}& =b_{22}+c_{22}\end{align}

a

11

=

b

11

a

12

=

b

12

(2.7)

a

21

=

b

21

a

22

=

b

22

+

c

22

(2.8)

\begin{flalign*}a_{11}& =b_{11}&a_{12}& =b_{12}\\a_{21}& =b_{21}&a_{22}& =b_{22}+c_{22}\end{flalign*}

a

11

=

b

11

a

12

=

b

12

a

21

=

b

21

a

22

=

b

22

+

c

22

Note 1.

The

split

environment is something of a special case. It is a subordinate environment that canbe used as the contents of an

equation

environment or the contents of one “line” in a multiple-equationstructure such as

align

or

gather

.

Note 2.

The

eqnarray

and

eqnarray*

environments described in [Lamport] are not recommended becausethey produce inconsistent spacing of the equal signs and make no attempt to prevent overprinting of theequation body and equation number.

Short Math Guide for L

A

T E X, version

1.09 (2002-03-22) 3

2.2. Automatic numbering and cross-referencing

To get an auto-numbered equa-tion, use the

equation

environment; to assign a label for cross-referencing, use the

\label

command:

\begin{equation}\label{reio}...\end{equation}

To get a cross-reference to an auto-numbered equation, use the

\eqref

command:

... using equations \eqref{ax1} and \eqref{bz2}, wecan derive ...

The above example would produce something likeusing equations (3.2) and (3.5), we can deriveIn other words,

\eqref{ax1}

is equivalent to

(\ref{ax1})

.To give your equation numbers the form

m.n

(

section-number.equation-number

), usethe

\numberwithin

command in the preamble of your document:

\numberwithin{equation}{section}

For more details on custom numbering schemes see [Lamport,

§

6.3,

§

C.8.4].The

subequations

environment provides a convenient way to number equations in agroup with a subordinate numbering scheme. For example, supposing that the currentequation number is 2.1, write

\begin{equation}\label{first}a=b+c\end{equation}some intervening text\begin{subequations}\label{grp}\begin{align}a&=b+c\label{second}\\d&=e+f+g\label{third}\\h&=i+j\label{fourth}\end{align}\end{subequations}

to get

a

=

b

+

c

(2.9)some intervening text

a

=

b

+

c

(2.10a)

d

=

e

+

f

+

g

(2.10b)

h

=

i

+

j

(2.10c)By putting a

\label

command immediately after

\begin{subequations}

you can get areference to the parent number;

\eqref{grp}

from the above example would produce (2.10)while

\eqref{second}

would produce (2.10a).

3. Math symbols and math fonts

3.1. Classes of math symbols

The symbols in a math formula fall into diﬀerent classesthat correspond more or less to the part of speech each symbol would have if the formulawere expressed in words. Certain spacing and positioning cues are traditionally used forthe diﬀerent symbol classes to increase the readability of formulas.

scribd