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Short Math Guide for LaTeX - Michael Downes

Short Math Guide for LaTeX - Michael Downes

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Published by Wendy Langer
Short Math Guide for Latex by Michel Downes
Short Math Guide for Latex by Michel Downes

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Published by: Wendy Langer on Mar 27, 2011
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Short Math Guide for L
A
TEXMichael DownesAmerican Mathematical Society
Version 1.09 (2002-03-22), currently available at
http://www.ams.org/tex/short-math-guide.html
1. Introduction
This is a concise summary of recommended features in L
A
TEX and acouple of extension packages for
writing math formulas
. Readers needing greater depthof detail are referred to the sources listed in the bibliography, especially [Lamport], [LUG],[AMUG], [LFG], [LGG], and [LC]. A certain amount of familiarity with standard L
A
TEXterminology is assumed; if your memory needs refreshing on the L
A
TEX meaning of 
command 
,
optional argument 
,
environment 
,
package
, and so forth, see [Lamport].The features described here are available to you if you use L
A
TEX with two extensionpackages published by the American Mathematical Society:
amssymb
and
amsmath
. Thus,the source file for this document begins with
\documentclass{article}\usepackage{amssymb,amsmath}
The
amssymb
package might be omissible for documents whose math symbol usage is rela-tively modest; the easiest way to test this is to leave out the
amssymb
reference and see if any math symbols in the document produce ‘Undefined control sequence’ messages.Many noteworthy features found in other packages are not covered here; see Section 10.Regarding math symbols, please note especially that the list given here is not intended to becomprehensive, but to illustrate such symbols as users will normally find already present intheir L
A
TEX system and usable without installing any additional fonts or doing other setupwork.If you have a need for a symbol not shown here, you will probably want to consult
TheComprehensive L
A
X Symbols List 
(Pakin):
http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/info/symbols/comprehensive/
.
2. Inline math formulas and displayed equations
2.1. The fundamentals
Entering and leaving math mode in L
A
TEX is normally done withthe following commands and environments.
inline formulas displayed equations
$
...
$\(
...
\)\[...\]
unnumbered
\begin{equation*}
...
\end{equation*}
unnumbered
\begin{equation}
...
\end{equation}
automaticallynumbered
Note.
Alternative environments
\begin{math}
...
\end{math}
,
\begin{displaymath}
...
\end{displaymath}
are seldom needed in practice. Using the plain TEX notation
$$
...
$$
for displayed equations is not recom-mended. Although it is not expressly forbidden in L
A
TEX, it is not documented anywhere in the L
A
TEX bookas being part of the L
A
TEX command set, and it interferes with the proper operation of various featuressuch as the
fleqn
option.
Environments for handling equation groups and multi-line equations are shown in Table 1.1
 
Short Math Guide for L
A
X, version
1.09 (2002-03-22) 2Table 1: Multi-line equations and equation groups (vertical lines indicating nominal mar-gins).
\begin{equation}\label{xx}\begin{split}a& =b+c-d\\& \quad +e-f\\& =g+h\\& =i\end{split}\end{equation}
a
=
b
+
c
d
+
e
=
g
+
h
=
i
(2.1)
\begin{multline}a+b+c+d+e+f\\+i+j+k+l+m+n\end{multline}
a
+
b
+
c
+
d
+
e
+
+
i
+
j
+
k
+
l
+
m
+
n
(2.2)
\begin{gather}a_1=b_1+c_1\\a_2=b_2+c_2-d_2+e_2\end{gather}
a
1
=
b
1
+
c
1
(2.3)
a
2
=
b
2
+
c
2
d
2
+
e
2
(2.4)
\begin{align}a_1& =b_1+c_1\\a_2& =b_2+c_2-d_2+e_2\end{align}
a
1
=
b
1
+
c
1
(2.5)
a
2
=
b
2
+
c
2
d
2
+
e
2
(2.6)
\begin{align}a_{11}& =b_{11}&a_{12}& =b_{12}\\a_{21}& =b_{21}&a_{22}& =b_{22}+c_{22}\end{align}
a
11
=
b
11
a
12
=
b
12
(2.7)
a
21
=
b
21
a
22
=
b
22
+
c
22
(2.8)
\begin{flalign*}a_{11}& =b_{11}&a_{12}& =b_{12}\\a_{21}& =b_{21}&a_{22}& =b_{22}+c_{22}\end{flalign*}
a
11
=
b
11
a
12
=
b
12
a
21
=
b
21
a
22
=
b
22
+
c
22
Note 1.
The
split
environment is something of a special case. It is a subordinate environment that canbe used as the contents of an
equation
environment or the contents of one “line” in a multiple-equationstructure such as
align
or
gather
.
Note 2.
The
eqnarray
and
eqnarray*
environments described in [Lamport] are not recommended becausethey produce inconsistent spacing of the equal signs and make no attempt to prevent overprinting of theequation body and equation number.
 
Short Math Guide for L
A
X, version
1.09 (2002-03-22) 3
2.2. Automatic numbering and cross-referencing
To get an auto-numbered equa-tion, use the
equation
environment; to assign a label for cross-referencing, use the
\label
command:
\begin{equation}\label{reio}...\end{equation}
To get a cross-reference to an auto-numbered equation, use the
\eqref
command:
... using equations \eqref{ax1} and \eqref{bz2}, wecan derive ...
The above example would produce something likeusing equations (3.2) and (3.5), we can deriveIn other words,
\eqref{ax1}
is equivalent to
(\ref{ax1})
.To give your equation numbers the form
m.n 
(
section-number.equation-number 
), usethe
\numberwithin
command in the preamble of your document:
\numberwithin{equation}{section}
For more details on custom numbering schemes see [Lamport,
§
6.3,
§
C.8.4].The
subequations
environment provides a convenient way to number equations in agroup with a subordinate numbering scheme. For example, supposing that the currentequation number is 2.1, write
\begin{equation}\label{first}a=b+c\end{equation}some intervening text\begin{subequations}\label{grp}\begin{align}a&=b+c\label{second}\\d&=e+f+g\label{third}\\h&=i+j\label{fourth}\end{align}\end{subequations}
to get
a
=
b
+
c
(2.9)some intervening text
a
=
b
+
c
(2.10a)
d
=
e
+
+
g
(2.10b)
h
=
i
+
j
(2.10c)By putting a
\label
command immediately after
\begin{subequations}
you can get areference to the parent number;
\eqref{grp}
from the above example would produce (2.10)while
\eqref{second}
would produce (2.10a).
3. Math symbols and math fonts
3.1. Classes of math symbols
The symbols in a math formula fall into different classesthat correspond more or less to the part of speech each symbol would have if the formulawere expressed in words. Certain spacing and positioning cues are traditionally used forthe different symbol classes to increase the readability of formulas.

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