International Conference on Ship Drag ReductionSMOOTH-SHIPS, Istanbul, Turkey, 20-21 May 2010
Application of air cavities on high-speed ships in Russia
Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia
The paper briefly reviews state-of-the-art research studies in Russia on application of artifi-cial bottom cavities for reduction of hydrodynamic resistance of high-speed ships. The paper also considersspecific features of different types of ship propulsors used in air cavity ships and provides information about Russian air-cavity ships, which have been built and successfully operated. Advantages of the air cavity prin-ciple are demonstrated for a new design of fast motor yacht.
1 INTRODUCTIONThe development of ships with artificially inflatedair cavity was initiated in Russia in 1961 at the Kry-lov Shipbuilding Research Institute. Initial investiga-tions were focused on the application of the conceptto slow river vessels and barges. These investiga-tions included theoretical research based on the lin-earized 2D theory of cavitation flow, numerousmodel tests and finally full-scale trials of three river ships.Later, starting from 1965, a series of researchprojects have been undertaken aimed at reducing thedrag of planing hullforms like patrol and utilityboats, fast passenger ships. These research effortswere started with extension of the linearized 2Dcavitation flow theory to planing hullforms. Then aconsiderable amount of model tests were carried outresulting in the design and series construction of river-going high-speed passenger ships and patrolboats with air cavities.In 1985 similar investigations were performed for fast displacement vessels. These studies revealedthat the 2-D theory was not applicable for this typeof ships, and the 3-D linearized theory and softwarewere developed to cover these cases. The methodshave been validated by extensive design studies andat present these techniques are successfully used inpractical design of the air-cavity ships.In 1993 investigations were expanded to cover planing and semi-planing catamarans. The next stagestarted in 1995 with research extended to applicationof artificial cavities to monohulls operating under transient modes like fast marine passenger or car/passenger ferries, and high-speed sea-going mo-tor yachts. In 2000 model tests of fast containershipswere started.For about 50 years researchers have been devel-oping applicable computation methods and resolvingchallenges associated with various types of propul-sors, sea-keeping performance and specific issuesrelevant for ships designed to have several differentoperation speeds. Along with the monohulls, cata-marans and ships with outriggers were examined.The model tests carried out at the Krylov Institutehave provided the evidence that artificial cavitiescould be efficient for the following types of ships:- River cargo vessels and barges (Butusov et al1999a);- Supertankers;- Bulk-carriers;- River-sea cargo vessels (Sverchkov 2002);- Fast conventional monohulls (Butusov et al.1999b);- Monohulls operating under transient conditions(passenger and car/passenger ferries, sea-goingmotor yachts, rescue ships) (Butusov et al. 1999,Sverchkov 2001);- Fast landing craft (Jane’s 2001-2002);- Planing craft (passenger, service, utility and patrolboats, sea-going motor yachts) (Sverchkov &Poustoshny 2003);- Planing catamarans with asymmetric demihulls(Sverchkov 2005);- Catamarans operating under transient conditions(passenger and car/passenger ferries) (Butusov etal. 1999);