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Globalization a disservice to human development in Africa

Globalization a disservice to human development in Africa

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Published by Midas
By Juliano M Kabamba.
The paper expounds on inequalities that have emanated from the integration of world economies but focuses on how adoption of ICT has failed to make meaningful contributions to uplift the social and economic circumstances of the majority of the population in Africa.
By Juliano M Kabamba.
The paper expounds on inequalities that have emanated from the integration of world economies but focuses on how adoption of ICT has failed to make meaningful contributions to uplift the social and economic circumstances of the majority of the population in Africa.

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Published by: Midas on Mar 28, 2011
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Date : 09/06/2008
Globalization a disservice to human development inAfrica: the impact of ICTJuliano M Kabamba
Senior Director; Library and Information CentreCentral University of Technology, Free StatePrivate Bag X20539Bloemfortein 9300South AfricaTel. +27515073141Fax.+27515073468e-mail: jkabamba@cut.ac.za 
Meeting:
 
115 AfricaSimultaneous Interpretation:
English, Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Russian and Spanish 
WORLD LIBRARY AND INFORMATION CONGRESS: 74TH IFLA GENERAL CONFERENCE ANDCOUNCIL
10-14 August 2008, Québec, Canadahttp://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla74/index.htm
 
Introduction
Libraries in Africa are a product of the underdevelopment of the continent. Tounderstand the current state of libraries in Africa it is important to appreciate thebroader ramifications of global machinations and, in particular, the impact ofglobalization on the African continent. Rather than concentrate on libraries per sethe paper attempt to demonstrate how globalization has diminished prospects forhuman development in Africa. The paper expounds on inequalities that haveemanated from the integration of world economies but focuses on how adoptionof ICT has failed to make meaningful contributions to uplift the social andeconomic circumstances of the majority of the population in Africa. In the samelight diffusion of ICT in libraries has only produced half measures, at best. Inmany instances it has been a flop.
Definition of terms
The term globalization could mean different things to different people. It isprobably one the hotly contested concepts. It can be defined as a process ofworldwide integration of economies and societies. Merrian-Webster’s Onlinedefines globalization as “the development of an increasingly integrated globaleconomy marked by free trade, free flow of capital, and trapping of cheaperforeign labor markets.” It is a convergence of economic, political and culturesystems. Globalization can be distinguished by a number of developments in the
 
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world economy including emergence of world trade agreements, adoption ofinternational standards and elimination of tariffs.Advances in technology such as global telecommunication infrastructure, crossborder data flow, the Internet, satellite networks and wireless telephones are alsocredited to globalization. It can be argued that global integration of markets wasstimulated by unprecedented growth in Information and communicationtechnology (Pigato, 2001).Heeks (Kiplangat, & Ocholla, 2005:1) defines ITCs as “electronic means ofcapturing, processing, and communicating information and categorises ICTs toinclude: digital information held as 1s and 0s and comprises computer hardware,software and networks and intermediate technology based largely on analogueinformation waves such as radio, television and telephones.” Of cause theInternet is an important component of ICTs.The impact of ICT in modern society has been so intense and powerful that it hasliterally revolutionarized communication and interchange of information acrossthe globe. Indeed some scholars (Afullo, 2000) refers to this radicaltransformation as a revolution founded on “convergence of communications,information, and media technologies.”Human development relates to improvements to human life. In the main itencompasses increased life span, lowering of infant and maternal mortality,improved access to water, sanitation, education, etc. Human development, aselaborated upon, (Kabamba, 2008) is not so much about the wealth of a nationbut setting conditions upon which society can create opportunities to improvesocial and economic conditions.The essence of human development (UNDP, 2007) is creating opportunities forpeople to realize their full potential. While the wealth of a nation may have abearing on enhancing human development inequalities in the distribution ofwealth can be an impingement.
Power shift
Proponents of globalization will be quick to point out that increased prosperity inthe world economy is an outcome of globalization. And without doubtglobalization is largely responsible for the growth of economically powerfulnations. It must be emphasized though that the growth of the world economyassociated with globalization has seen winners and losses in the global village.With globalization the world has witnessed increased mergers and acquisitions ofcompanies and ushered in formation of multi-national corporate bodies. Manycorporate bodies like EBSCO, OCLC and Blackwell saw the metamorphosis ofworld economy as an opportunity to increase their market share on theinternational market.
 
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 The concept of globalization can attract political overtones and provokenationalistic sentiments. Since the unfolding of this phenomenon the geo-politicaleconomy of the world has not been the same. National territorial boundariesseem to be weathering and giving way to ‘internationalism.’ In the words of Heldand McGrew (Curry, 2002) globalization entails “re-articulation of internationalspace, in which the notions of sovereignty and democracy are being prised awayfrom traditional rootedness in the national community and the territoriallybounded national-state.” This view is shared by Korten (Curry, 2002) who arguesthat “the convergence of ideological, political, and technological forces behindthis process of economic globalization shifts power away from the localgovernments who should be responsible for the public good (including funding forlibraries) and shifts the power towards a handful of corporate and financialinstitutions driven by the quest for short term financial gains.”
Trade
Perhaps trade can be singled out as one of the most important factors in fuelingglobalization. The assertion that globalization has led to greater convergence ofpoor and rich economies can not be disputed, particularly when one looks at thevolume of trade involved. It is also evident (UNDP, 2005) that globalization hasincreased the share of developing countries in the manufacturing market.Nevertheless, fundamental structural barriers that hinder more equitable tradebetween developed and developing nations are still intact and in some casesstructural barriers are growing bigger.In any case while trade does offer opportunities to improve the standard of livingof people greater participation in trade does not necessary translates inaccelerated human development.The UNDP report notes that in the face of the world economic boom Sub-SaharaAfrica is becoming ‘increasingly marginalized.’ The region, “with 689 millionpeople, accounts for a smaller share of world exports than Belgium, with 10million people.”At the core of unfair trade are the restrictions imposed on developing countries topenetrate the world economy. The UNDP report reviews that “The world highesttrade barriers are elected against some of its poorest countries; on average thetrade barriers faced by developing countries exporting to the rich countries aretree times higher than those faced by rich countries when they trade with eachother.” According to the UNDP report three quarters of the world populationsurviving on $1 per day are located in rural areas. Their chance to emerge frompoverty largely depends on agriculture trade and rules governing suchtransactions at global level. However, subsidies of the farming community of richnations continue to suffocate opportunities for agricultural development indeveloping countries and subsidies are reported to be on the increase (UNDP,

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