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Amphibious Vehicle

Amphibious Vehicle

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Published by Pravat Kumar Sahu

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Published by: Pravat Kumar Sahu on Mar 29, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/18/2013

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Amphibious vehicle
IntroductionALARC-V5-ton U.S. amphibious cargo vehicleAn
amphibious vehicle
(or simply
amphibian
), is avehicleor craft, that is a means of transport, viable on land as well as on water ± just like anamphibian.This definition applies equally to any land and water transport, small or large, powered or unpowered, ranging from amphibiousbicycles,ATVs,cars,buses,trucks,RVs, andmilitary vehicles, all the way to the very largesthovercraft. Classiclanding craftare generally not considered amphibious vehicles, although they
are
part of 
amphibious assault 
. Nor areGroundeffect vehicles, such asEkranoplans. The former do not offer any real land transportation at all ±  the latter (aside from completely disconnecting from the surface, like afixed-wing aircraft) willprobably crash on all but the flattest of landmasses.Amphibious catakiteSEA-QUADpropelled by kite [http://www.sea-quad.comweb site
 
C
ontents
y
 
1
General technical notes 
y
 
2
History 
y
 
3
Wheeled 
o
 
3
.
1
Unarmored 
 
3
.
1
.
1
ATV's 
 
3
.
1
.
2
Cars 
 
3
.
1
.
3
Cycles 
 
3
.
1
.4 Buses 
 
3
.
1
.5 Trucks and barges 
o
 
3
.
2
Armored 
y
 
4 Tracked 
o
 
4.
1
Unarmored 
o
 
4.
2
Armored 
 
4.
2
.
1
Tanks 
 
4.
2
.
2
Multi-unit 
y
 
5 Deep fording 
y
 
6
Hovercraft 
y
 
7
See also 
y
 
8
References 
y
 
9
Further reading 
y
 
10
External links 
G
eneral technical notes
Propeller on a FrenchVAB 
 
 Amphibious Land Rover Apart from the distinction in sizes mentioned above, two main categories of amphibious vehicleare immediately apparent: those that travel on an air-cushion (Hovercraft) and those that don't.Amongst the latter, many designs were prompted by the desire to expand the off-roadcapabilities of land-vehicles to an "all-terrain" ability, in some cases not only focused on creatinga transport that will work on land and water, but also on intermediates like ice, snow, mud,marsh,swampetc.. This explains why many designs usetracksin addition to or instead of  wheels, and in some cases even resort toarticulatedbody configurations or other unconventionaldesigns such asscrew-propelled vehicleswhich use auger-like barrels which propel a vehiclethrough muddy terrain with a twisting motion.,
[
1]
[
2]
 Most land vehicles ± even lightly armored ones ± can be made amphibious simply by providingthem with a waterproof hulland perhaps a propellor. This is possible thanks to the vehicle'svolume usually being bigger than itsdisplacement, meaning it will float. Heavily armoredvehicles however sometimes have adensitygreater than water (their weight inkilograms  exceeds their volume inlitres), and will need additionalbuoyancymeasures. These can take the form of inflatable floatation devices, much like the sides of a rubber dinghy, or a waterproof fabric skirt raised from the top perimeter of the vehicle.In the case of the Land Rover pictured to the side, floats in the shape of oil-drums have beenused to create a vehicle that will swim much like an improvised raft.For propulsion in or on the water some vehicles simply make do by spinning their wheels or tracks, while others can power their way forward more effectively using (additional)screwpropellor(s)or water jet(s). Most amphibians will work only as adisplacement hullwhen in the water ± only a small number of designs have the capability to raise out of the water when speedis gained, to achieve high velocityhydroplaning, skimming over the water surface likespeedboats.
H
istory
Some of the earliest known amphibious vehicles were amphibious carriages, the invention of which is credited to the notorious Neapolitan PrinceRaimondo di Sangroof Sansevero (ca.
17
5
0
[
ea
link 
]
) or Sir Samuel Bentham(
1781
).

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