Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Untitled

Untitled

Ratings: (0)|Views: 0 |Likes:
Published by Rohit Kumar

More info:

Published by: Rohit Kumar on Mar 29, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as TXT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/29/2011

pdf

text

original

 
LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY.TERM PAPER REWIEW ON SMART ANTENNA.ROHIT KUMAR.RB67T1A281060070121 Smart antenna:ABSTRACT: One of the most rapidly developing areas of communications is Smart Antenna systems. This paper deals with the principle and working of smart antennasand the elegance of their applications in various fields such a 4G telephony system, best suitability of multi carrier modulations such as OFDMA etc..,This paper mainly concentrates on use of smart antennas in mobile communicationsthat enhances the capabilities of the mobile and cellular system such a fasterbit rate, multi use interference, space division multiplexing (SDMA),increase inrange, Multi path Mitigation, reduction of errors due to multi path fading andwith one great advantage that is a very high security. The signal that is been transmitted by a smart antenna cannot tracked or received any other antenna thusensuring a very high security of the data transmitted. This paper also dealsthe required algorithms that are need for the beam forming in the antenna patters.The applications of smart antennas such as in WI-FI transmitter, Discrete MultiTone modulation (DMT), OFDMA and TD-SCDMA is already in real world use is also incorporated in this paper.INTRODUCTION:Smart antennas (also known as adaptive array antennas, multiple antennas and recently MIMO) are antenna arrays with smart signal processing algorithms used to identify spatial signal signature such as the direction of arrival (DOA) of the signal, and use it to calculate beamforming vectors, to track and locate the antenna beam on the mobile/target. The antenna could optionally be any sensor.Smart antenna techniques are used notably in acoustic signal processing, track and scan RADAR, radio astronomy and radio telescopes, and mostly in cellular systems like W-CDMA and UMTS. A smart antenna is an array of antenna elements connected to a digital signal processor. Such a configuration dramatically enhances the capacity of a wireless link through a combination of diversity gain, array gain, and interference suppression. Increased capacity translates to higher data rates for a given number of users or more users for a given data rate per user.Multipath paths of propagation are created by reflections and scattering. Also,interference signals such as that produced by the microwave oven in the picture,are superimposed on the desired signals. Measurements suggest that each path isreally a bundle or cluster of paths, resulting from surface roughness or irregularities. The random gain of the bundle is called Multipath fading.PRINCPLE OF WORKING:The smart antenna works as follows. Each antenna element "sees" each propagationpath differently, enabling the collection of elements to distinguish individualpaths to within a certain resolution. As a consequence, smart antenna transmitters can encode independent streams of data onto different paths or linear combinations of paths, thereby increasing the data rate, or they can encode data redundantly onto paths that fade independently to protect the receiver from catastrophic signal fades, thereby providing diversity gain. A smart antenna receiver candecode the data from a smart antenna transmitter this is the highest-performingconfiguration or it can simply provide array gain or diversity gain to the desired signals transmitted from conventional transmitters and suppress the interference.No manual placement of antennas is required. The smart antenna electronically adapts to the environment by looking for pilot tones or beacons or by recovering certain characteristics (such as a known alphabet or constant envelope) that thetransmitted signal is known to have. The smart antenna can also separate the sig
 
nals from multiple users who are separated in space (i.e. by distance) but who use the same radio channel (i.e. center frequency, time-slot, and/or code); thisapplication is called Space-division multiple access (SDMA).Direction of arrival (DOA) estimation:The smart antenna system estimates the direction of arrival of the signal, usingtechniques such as MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification), estimation of signalparameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT) algorithms, Matrix Pencil method or one of their derivatives. They involve finding a spatial spectrumof the antenna/sensor array, and calculating the DOA from the peaks of this spectrum. These calculations are computationally intensive.Matrix Pencil is very efficient in case of real time systems, and under the correlated sources.BEAM FORMING BASICS:Beam forming is the term used to describe the application of weights to the inputs of an array of antennas to focus the reception of the antenna array in a certain direction, called the look direction or the main lobe. More importantly, other signals of the same carrier frequency from other directions can be rejected.These effects are all achieved electronically and no physical movement of the receiving antennas is necessary. In addition, multiple beam formers focused in different directions can share a single antenna array one set of antennas can service multiple calls of the same carrier.It is no coincidence that the number of elements in the above diagram equals thenumber of incoming signals. A beam former of L antenna elements is capable of accepting one signal and reliably rejecting L-1 signals. A greater number of interfering signals will diminish the performance of the beam former. Beam forming presents several advantages to antenna design .Firstly, space division multiple access (SDMA) is achieved since a beamformer can steer its look direction towardsa certain signal. Other signals from different directions can reuse the same carrier frequency. Secondly, because the beamformer is focused in a particular direction, the antenna sensitivity can be increased for a better signal to noise ratio, especially when receiving weak signals. Thirdly, signal interference is reduced due to the rejection of undesired signals. For the uplink case of transmitting from the antenna array to a mobile telephone, system interference is reducedsince the signal is only transmitted in the look direction. A digital beamformer is one that operates in the digital domain. Traditionally, beam formers were implemented in analog; the weights were determined and applied to the antenna inputs via analog circuitry. With digital beam forming, the antenna signals are individually translated from Radio Frequencies (RF) to Intermediate Frequencies (IF), digitized and then down-converted to base-band I and Q components. A beam forming algorithm implemented on one or more digital signal processors then processes the I and Q components to determine a set of weights for the input signals. The input signals are then multiplied by the weights and summed to output the signal of interest (SOI).One of the foremost advantages offered by the software radio technology is flexibility. Because beam forming is implemented in software, it is possible to investigate a wide range of beam forming algorithms without theneed to modify the system hardware for every algorithm. Consequently, researchers can focus their efforts on improving the performance of the beam forming algorithms rather than on designing new hardware, which can be a very expensive andtime consuming process. A complete description of the RLS algorithm can be foundin .This algorithm was chosen for its fast convergence rate and ability to process the input signal before demodulation. While the first reason is important especially when the environment is changing rapidly, the later reason decreases the algorithm dependency on a specific air interface.Beamforming:Beamforming is the method used to create the radiation pattern of the antenna array by adding constructively the phases of the signals in the direction of the targets/mobiles desired, and nulling the pattern of the targets/mobiles that are
 
undesired/interfering targets. This can be done with a simple FIR tapped delay line filter. The weights of the FIR filter may also be changed adaptively, and used to provide optimal beamforming, in the sense that it reduces the MMSE betweenthe desired and actual beampattern formed. Typical algorithms are the steepestdescent, and LMS algorithms.Types of smart antennas:Two of the main types of smart antennas include switched beam smart antennas andadaptive array smart antennas. Switched beam systems have several available fixed beam patterns. A decision is made as to which beam to access, at any given point in time, based upon the requirements of the system. Adaptive arrays allow the antenna to steer the beam to any direction of interest while simultaneously nulling interfering signals [3]. Beamdirection can be estimated using the so-called direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation methods .In 2008, the United States NTIA began a major effort to assist consumers in thepurchase of digital television converter boxes.Through this effort, many peoplehave been exposed to the concept of smart antennas for the first time. In the context of consumer electronics, a "smart antenna" is one that conforms to the EIA/CEA-909 Standard Interface.1. Phased Array/Beam Smart/Multi-beam AntennaIn this type of array, there will be numerous amount of fixed beams amongst which one beam will turn on or will be steered towards the wanted signal. This can be done only with the help of adjustment in the phase. In other words, as the wanted target moves, the beam will also be steered. The figure of a phased array antenna is shown below. 2. Adaptive Array AntennaIn this type of antenna, there will be a change in the beam pattern according tothe movement of the wanted user and the movement of the interference. The signals that are received will be weighted and later combined to increase the wantedsignal to interference in addition to the noise and power ratio [S/N]. Thus, thedirection of interference will be balanced as the wanted signal will be in thedirection of the main beam.The antenna can easily steer the main beam to any direction, while at the same time nullifying the interfering signal. The direction of the beam can be calculated using the DOA method. The figure of an adaptive array antenna is shown below. Another way of categorizing smart antennas is in the number of inputs and outputs that is used for the device. According t this classification the categories are given below.1. SIMO (Single Input – Multiple Output)In this method one antenna will be used at the source and multiple antennas willbe used at the destination.2. MISO (Multiple Input – Single Output)In this method, multiple antennas will be used at the source and only one antenna will be used at the receiver.3. MIMO (Multiple Input – Multiple Output)In this method multiple antennas will be used at both the source and the destination. This is the most efficient method amongst all. This method was extended recently in accordance to the IEEE 802.11n standard. This method clearly supportsspatial information processing.Extension of smart antennas:Smart antenna systems are also a defining characteristic of MIMO systems, such as the IEEE 802.11n standard. Conventionally, a smart antenna is a unit of a wireless communication system and performs spatial signal processing with multiple a

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->