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Psychoanalysis_after_Freud_Study_Guide_etc_2008

Psychoanalysis_after_Freud_Study_Guide_etc_2008

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Y a v a p a i C o n s u l t a t i o n a n d H e a l i n g
www.YavapaiConsultation.org 
Psychoanalysis after Freud / Post-Freudian Traditions
A Study Guide
Barnaby B. Barratt, PhD, DHS
Revised: Spring 2008
Please observe and honor the fact that this document is under legal copyright. It is for private distribution only, and may not be shared, copied, circulated, or otherwise disseminated without the explicit permission of its author. This applies not only to the content in general, but also specifically to the clinical material at the end of the document.
Introduction:
Rivaled only by the developments of behaviorism/cognitive-behaviorism,
psychoanalysis
is unarguably the 20
th
century’s most influential psychological paradigm,describing the human condition and purporting to heal many aspects of its prevalentdistress.Yet what exactly is “psychoanalytic psychology”? From the very beginning, AlfredAdler’s “individual psychology” and Carl Jung’s “analytical psychology,” caused their followers to diverge from Sigmund Freud’s innovations, psychoanalysis has been afractured, fragmented and profoundly controversial discipline.Often, its claims to “science” have been protected more by institutional affiliation than bythe progression of consensual discourse and new discovery. (Moreover, those whohave defended the scientific character of psychoanalysis—combating critics who haveclaimed its doctrines are mere scientism or pseudoscience—have typically referred tonotions of “science” that prevailed in the 20
th
century but that are now, with the advent of quantum realities, seeming outdated.)Looking back on 20
th
century psychoanalysis, we see numerous theories—many of them notably incompatible with each other—all vying for the possibly honorific title of 
Psychoanalysis after Freud / Post-Freudian Traditions: A Study Guide.
Page 1 of 41.© Barnaby B. Barratt, PhD, DHS, 2008
 
“psychoanalysis.” At the same time, we see a discipline, or community of disciplines,assailed by external criticism over issues of scientific status and therapeutic claims.Yet in so many ways, psychoanalysis has survived and thrived. It continues as a viableclinical enterprise in Europe, even though its inroads into the academic discourse of psychology have been patchy. It has undergone several waves of popularity in theUnited States, and it has large numbers of adherents throughout Central and SouthAmerica.Even if—for the time being—we omit consideration of the major contributions of C. G.Jung’s analytical, archetypal and transpersonal psychology/psychotherapy, theories andhealing practices going under the label of 
psychoanalysis
comprise a strangely diverseand controversial grouping. The purpose of this “Study Guide” is to provide somecoordinates for anyone wishing to navigate through this territory (and it will only addressthe leading theorists of major trends or schools that influenced the development of thediscipline during the 20
th
century).Even if we look only within the confines of the
International Psychoanalytic Association
(from which Adler broke in 1911, and Jung in 1913), by the end of the 20
th
century wefind psychoanalysis to be split into many divergent varieties. The dominant “schools”include the Kleinian, Lacanian, structural-functional or ego psychological,object-relational but nonKleinian or “independent”, Kohutian, and relational,intersubjective or interpersonal. But even this list of major divisions fails to incorporatesome important variations—exemplified by the heirs to Wilhelm Reich, by the“existential psychoanalysts,” by the post-structural feminists, and others.These divergences are not trivial, they often have foundationally metatheoreticalimplications, consequences for clinical practice, cultural ramifications and profoundideological and spiritual significance.It is unfortunate that, in the English language, we currently lack a really sophisticatedand non-partisan survey of this field and its history—one that would enable the layreader to understand the ideological, cultural and scientific forces that have renderedpsychoanalysis into such a variety of competing and conflicting “schools,” many of which are almost entirely unable to communicate with each other, yet each of whichconsiders itself to be essentially “psychoanalytic.” We lack an accessible and readable,critical guide to comparative psychoanalysis.This Study Guide will
not 
compensate for this lack. But will suggest some of the major trends and variations in a way that will permit the interested student to undertakeexplorations of his/her own.
Psychoanalysis after Freud / Post-Freudian Traditions: A Study Guide.
Page 2 of 41.© Barnaby B. Barratt, PhD, DHS, 2008
 
General Study Questions of Psychoanalytic History and Development:
How do psychoanalytic ideas originate and how are they transmitted? In what sensedo we consider the phenomena to which psychoanalysis refers (e.g., the unconscious,reality, etc.)
there
to be discovered, or actually constructed discursively by theparticipants in a “depth” inquiry?
How might a history of psychoanalytic ideas and practices (one that is focused onthe chronology of authors/teachers, practitioners/adherents, schools/institutes) actuallyobscure the more profoundly paradigmatic and discursive genealogy of psychoanalyticideas and practices (“genealogy” implying a “history” that is focused on issues of logical-rhetorical structuring and transformation, modes of ideological transmission, andsociocultural determinants)?
What would it mean to claim that psychoanalysis proceeds “rationally”? Whatdefines “psychoanalysis” and how are its internal controversies to be understood or arbitrated (i.e., what levels of philosophical, ideological, cultural, scientific and clinicaldescription can usefully be brought to bear on these divergences)? And what thereforeare the limits of inter-translatability between different “models”?
Metatheoretical Dimensions:
Comparison of fundamentally divergent theories of the human condition requires thatsome sort of criteria of appraisal need to be brought to bear on the theories beingcompared. The following are offered as five deeply-interconnected metatheoreticaldimensions—or criteria for appraisal or evaluation—that might possibly to useful:
Self, Consciousness and the Unconscious.
Does the theory posit, or assume, thatthe human being once was, now is, or can become an internally harmonious andintegrated unit? Or is internal conflict, fragmentation or contradictoriness taken as aninevitable and unavoidable feature of living a human life?
The “Sexual Body.” 
Does the theory posit, or assume, that the human mind issomehow separate and distinct from the body it inhabits—thereby, subscribing to theepistemology and ontology of a Cartesian type of dualism? Or is the bodymindappreciated more holistically, and its sensuality and sexuality—the “immediate presenceof the lived experience of embodiment”—understood to have a foundationalpre-conceptual, pre-narratological, and pre-subject/object role in all humanpsychological functioning?
Individual and Spirituality.
Does the theory allow for ontological realms other thanthose that characterize ordinary, consensual reality? And therefore what forces—
Psychoanalysis after Freud / Post-Freudian Traditions: A Study Guide.
Page 3 of 41.© Barnaby B. Barratt, PhD, DHS, 2008

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