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Handout on Wbc, Leukemia

Handout on Wbc, Leukemia

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Published by lorelie17

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Published by: lorelie17 on Mar 30, 2011
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05/05/2014

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WHITE BLOOD CELLS
All WBCs (leukocytes) have a nucleus and no hemoglobinGranular or agranular classification based on presence of cytoplasmic granules made visible by staininggranulocytes are neutrophils, eosinophils or basophilsagranulocytes are monocyes or lymphocytes
Neutrophil (Granulocyte)
Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes or PolysNuclei = 2 to 5 lobes connected by thin strandsolder cells have more lobesyoung cells called band cells because of horseshoe shapednucleus (band)Fine, pale lilac practically invisible granulesDiameter is 10-12 microns55 - 75% of circulating WBCsNeutrophil Function :Fastest response of all WBC to bacteriaDirect actions against bacteriarelease lysozymes which destroy/digest bacteriarelease defensin proteins that act like antibiotics & pokeholes in bacterial cell walls destroying themrelease strong oxidants (bleach-like, strong chemicals ) thatdestroy bacteria
Eosinophils (Granulocyte)
Nucleus with 2 or 3 lobes connected by a thin strandLarge, uniform-sized granules stain orange-red with acidicdyesdo not obscure the nucleusDiameter is 10 to 12 microns1 - 3% of circulating WBCsEosinophil Function :Leave capillaries to enter tissue fluidRelease histaminaseslows down inflammation caused by basophilsAttack parasitic wormsPhagocytoze antibody-antigen complexes
Basophils (Granulocyte)
Large, dark purple, variable-sized granules stain with basicdyesobscure the nucleus
 
Irregular, s-shaped, bilobed nucleiDiameter is 8 to 10 microns0 - 1% of circulating WBCsBasophil Function :Involved in inflammatory and allergy reactionsLeave capillaries & enter connective tissue as mast cellsRelease heparin, histamine & serotoninheighten the inflammatory response and account for hypersensitivity(allergic) reaction
Lymphocyte (Agranulocyte)
Dark, oval to round nucleusCytoplasm sky blue in coloramount varies from rim of blue to normal amountSmall cells 6 - 9 microns in diameterLarge cells 10 - 14 microns in diameterincrease in number during viral infections25 - 35% of circulating WBCsLymphocyte Functions :B cellsdestroy bacteria and their toxinsturn into plasma cells that produce antibodiesT cellsattack viruses, fungi, transplanted organs, cancer cells & some bacteriaNatural killer cellsattack many different microbes & some tumor cellsdestroy foreign invaders by direct attack 
Monocyte (Agranulocyte)
Nucleus is kidney or horse-shoe shapedLargest WBC in circulating blooddoes not remain in blood long before migrating to the tissuesdifferentiate into macrophagesfixed group found in specific tissuesalveolar macrophages in lungsKupffer cells in liverwandering group gathers at sites of infectionDiameter is 12 - 20 micronsCytoplasm is a foamy blue-gray2 - 8% o circulating WBCsMonocyte Function :Take longer to get to site of infection, but arrive in larger numbersBecome wandering macrophages, once they leave thecapillariesDestroy microbes and clean up dead tissue following aninfection
 
 
LEUKEMIA
Definition of Leukemia :Leukemia is a malignant disease characterized by unregulated proliferationof one cell type.(one clone of Immature cell)It may involve any of the cell lines or a stem cell common to several celllines.Leukemias are classified into 2 major groupsChronic in which the onset is insidious, the disease is usually lessaggressive, and the cells involved are usually more mature cellsAcute in which the onset is usually rapid, the disease is veryaggressive, and the cells involved are usually poorly differentiated withmany blasts.Types :Both acute and chronic leukemias are further classified according to theprominent cell line involved in the expansion:If the prominent cell line is of the myeloid series it is amyelocytic leukemia (sometimes also called granulocytic)If the prominent cell line is of the lymphoid series it is alymphocytic leukemiaTherefore, there are four basic types of leukemiaAcute myelocytic leukemia AML- (includes myeloblastic, promyelocytic,monocytic, myelomonocytic, erythrocytic, and megakaryocytic)Acute lymphocytic leukemia ALL- (includes T cell, B cell,and Null cell)Chronic myelocytic leukemia CML - (includes myelocyticand myelomonocytic)Acute & Chronic TypesChronic lymphocytic leukemia CLL - (includes plasmocytic {multiplemyeloma}, Hairy cell, prolymphocytic, large granular cell lymphocytic,Sezary’s syndrome, and circulating lymphoma)

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