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aeroplane

aeroplane

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Published by: Prasanta R Sahu on Mar 30, 2011
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08/16/2011

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Aeroplane" and "Airplane" redirect here. For other uses, seeAeroplane (disambiguation)and Airplane (disambiguation).
 
Fixed-wing aircraft
PZL-104M Wilga 2000of Polish Border Guard. This fixed-
 
wing aircraft is notable for its full-span fixedaerodynamicsloton the leading edge of its wing.[hide]
P
art of a series on
Categories of aircraft
 Supported by lighter-than-air gases
(aerostats)
 
Unpowered Powered
 
Balloon 
 
A
irship 
 
Supported by LTA gases + aerodynamic lift
Unpowered Powered
 
H
ybrid moored balloon 
 
H
ybrid airship 
Supported by aerodynamic lift
(aerodynes
 
)
 
Unpowered
 
PoweredUnpowered
fixed-wing
Powered
fixed-wing
 
 
Glider  
 
hang gliders 
 
 
Paraglider  
 
 
ite 
 
Powered airplane(aeroplane)
 
powered hang gliders 
 
 
Powered paraglider  
 
 
F
lettner airplane 
 
Ground-effect vehicle Powered hybrid fixed/rotarywing
 
Tiltwing 
 
 
Tiltrotor  
 
C
oleopter  
 
Unpoweredrotary-wing 
 
Poweredrotary-wing 
 
 
otor kite 
 
A
utogyro 
 
 
Gyrodyne("
H
eliplane")
 
 
H
elicopter  
 
Powered aircraft driven byflapping
 
O
rnithopter  
O
ther means of lift
 
Unpowered Powered
 
H
overcraft 
 
F
lying Bedstead 
 
 
A
vrocar  
A
fixed-wing aircraft
,
typically called an
aeroplane
,
 
airplane
or simply
plane
,
is anaircraftcapable of flightusing forward motion that generatesliftas thewingmoves through the air. Planes includejet engineandpropeller drivenvehiclespropelled forward bythrust
,
as well as unpowered aircraft (such asgliders)
,
 which use thermals
,
or warm-air pockets to inherit lift. Fixed-wing aircraft are distinct fromornithoptersin which lift isgenerated by flapping wings androtary-wing aircraftin which wings rotate about a fixed mast.Most fixed-wing aircraft are flown by a pilot on board the aircraft
,
but some are designed to beremotely or computer controlled.
 
Contents
[hide]
 1 Etymology 2
H
istory 
3
 
O
verview 
o
 
3
.1 Structure 
o
 
3
.2
C
ontrols 
o
 
3
.
3
Instruments 
o
 
3
.4 Design and construction 4 Safety 
5
Environmental impact 
6
Variants 
o
 
6
.1 Unpowered 
o
 
6
.2 Propeller  
o
 
6
.
3
Jet 
 
6
.
3
.1 Supersonic jet 
o
 
6
.4 Solar-powered 
o
 
6
.
5
Unmanned 
o
 
6
.
6
 
ocket-powered 
o
 
6
.7
amjet 
o
 
6
.8 Scramjet 
 
 
7 See also 8 Notes 
9
 
eferences 10 External links 
[edit]
Etymology
First attested in English in late 19th century
,
the word
aeroplane
derives from theFrench 
aéroplane
,
which comesfrom theGreek (
ar 
)
,
"air"
[1]
+  (
planos
)
,
"wandering".
[2][3]
An ancient Greek term coined from these twowords was  (
aeroplanos
)
,
"wandering in air".
[4]
 In theUnited Kingdomand most of theCommonwealth
,
the term "aeroplane" is used. In theUnitedStatesandCanada
,
the term "airplane" is applied to these aircraft. The form "aeroplane" is the older of the two
,
 dating back to the mid- to late-19th century.
[5]
The spelling "airplane" was first recorded in 1907.
[6]
 [edit
 
]
History
Main articles:Aviation history and First flying machine 
Heavier-than-air flying machines are impossible.
[7]
 ²Lord Kelvin The dream of flight goes back to the days of pre-history. Many stories from antiquity involve flight
,
such as theGreeklegendof IcarusandDaedalus
,
and theVimanain ancientIndian epics. Around 400 BC
,
 Archytas
,
theAncientGreekphilosopher 
,
mathematician
,
astronomer 
,
statesman
,
and strategist
,
was reputed to have designed and builtthe first artificial
,
self-propelled flying device
,
a bird-shaped model propelled by a jet of what was probably steam
,
saidto have actually flown some 200 m.
[8][9]
This machine
,
which its inventor called
The Pigeon
(Greek:
  
"hèPeristera")
,
may have been suspended on a wire or pivot for its flight.
[10][11]
One of the first recorded ± still dilettante ±attempts withgliderswere those by the 11th century monkEilmer of Malmesbury(recorded in the 12th century) and the 9th century poetAbbas Ibn Firnas(recorded in the 17th century); both experiments ended with lasting injuries totheir pilots.
[12]
 Leonardo da Vinciresearched the wing design of birds and designed a man-powered aircraft inhis
Codex on the Flight of Birds
(1502). In the 18th century
,
 Francois Pilatre de Rozier andFrançois Laurent d'Arlandesflew in an aircraft lighter than air 
,
aballoon. The biggest challenge became to create other craft
,
capableof controlled flight.

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