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Polymner Clay Nanocomposite

Polymner Clay Nanocomposite

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Published by Bhupendra Singh
A nanocomposite is defined as “a material having two phases, one of the phases is uniformly dispersed into the second phase on nanoscale level (10-9 m).
A nanocomposite is defined as “a material having two phases, one of the phases is uniformly dispersed into the second phase on nanoscale level (10-9 m).

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Published by: Bhupendra Singh on Nov 24, 2007
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06/30/2013

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 Polymer Clay Nanocomposite
 Polymer Clay Nanocomposite
 Bhupendra Singh
Department of Chemical TechnologyUniversity of MumbaiMatunga, Mumbai – 400 019
Introduction
 Nanocomposites have changed the perception towards the concept of polymer composite.They are the emerging polymer composites of the 21
st
century. The importance of these products is growing from industrial and research point of view. Nanocomposite showdrastic improvement in the properties derived from the addition of few percent of theclays in the polymer matrix. These composites exhibit new and improved properties ascompared to their micro and macro-composite counterparts. This improvement in the properties is the result of the ultra fine phase dimension of the filler. A nanocomposite isdefined as “a material having two phases, one of the phases is uniformly dispersed intothe second phase on nanoscale level (10
-9
m)”. The dimension of the first phase is in thenanometer range of 1 to 100 nm.
1
Nanocomposites typically contain 1-5 wt. % of filler loading on weight basis depending on the final properties to be achieved.
2
 Nanocomposite promise to be the wave of future by having major implications inindustry and technology.
3
 The purpose of this paper is to present an overview on polymer clay nanocomposite, their synthesis, properties, characterization and application.
 By – Bhupendra Singh
 
 Polymer Clay Nanocomposite
Raw Materials
Polymer
Polymer clay composites have been classified into three categories namely, conventionalcomposite, intercalated nanocomposite and exfoliated nanocomposite depending on thetype of dispersion. In conventional composites the filler loading is on the higher side (30-60 vol. %)
1
as compared to the nanocomposites (1-5 wt. %). In intercalatednanocomposites regular insertion of the polymer in between the silicate layers at themolecular level is observed while in exfoliated nanocomposites individual layers of thesilicate layers are randomly dispersed into the polymer phase.
3, 4
 Different polymers have been used for the synthesis of the polymer clay nanocompositesin the last decade. These polymers are divided into two different classes
3
 
Thermoplastics
Thermosets
Thermoplastics
The first polymer clay nanocomposite synthesis was reported by Toyota Central R & D adozen year ago. Researchers have gone a long way since then in this arena and haddeveloped various nanocomposites by making use of different polymer and claycombinations. Out of various thermoplastics used; polyamide-6 is the most studied andreported nanocomposite. Injection molded polyamide-6 nanocomposite showed excellentmechanical, barrier, heat distortion property and reduced flammability;
5,6
withoutsacrificing its impact strength
4
.Various polyamide-6 nanocomposite products have beenalready commercialized.Thermoplastics such as Poly (ε-Caprolactam ),
1,7,8
PET,
9
PMMA,
10
PP,
11,12
PE,
12
PS,
13
PES,
14
PEO,
15
Polyimide
16
have been used for the synthesis of polymer clay
 By – Bhupendra Singh
 
 Polymer Clay Nanocomposite
nanocomposite. Different methods are employed to synthesize these nanocompositessuch as Melt intercalation process, In-Situ polymerization and Solution process.Processing of these nanocomposites can be done by conventional methods i.e. Injectionand Extrusion processes.
Thermosets
The most commonly studied thermoset nanocomposites are Epoxy,
3,17
Polyurethane
9,18
and unsaturated polyesters. Epoxies are the most widely used engineering thermosetmaterials as it is easy to process and gives excellent engineering properties on curing.
3
For thermoset nanocomposites the complete exfoliation of clay is predicted bythermodynamic principle. The free energy, ΔG for complete exfoliation of thermosetnanocomposite is the sum of the terms contributed by the polymer matrix and silicateclay.For polymer matrixΔG
 p
= ΔH
 p
- TΔS
 p
For silicate clayΔG
c
= ΔH
c
– TΔS
c
The total free energy change isΔG
t
= (ΔH
 p
+ ΔH
c
) - T (ΔS
 p
+ ΔSc) = ΔH
t
– TΔS
t
 When monomers or polymers penetrate into the silicate layers the entropy change isnegative while expansion of the gallery shows positive entropy change. The totalenthalpy will determine whether or not exfoliation takes place.
 By – Bhupendra Singh

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