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Descriptive Text

Descriptive Text

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Published by Vixter Array

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Published by: Vixter Array on Mar 30, 2011
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06/14/2013

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DESCRIPTIVE TEXT
I. General Description
Descriptive writing or text is usually also used to help writerdevelop an aspect of their work, e.g. to create a particular mood,atmosphere or describe a place so that the reader can create vividpictures of characters, places, objects etc.
1. Purpose of the text :
Social function (purpose) : to describe a particular person, placeor thing.As a feature, description is a style of writing which can be usefulfor other variety of purposes as:
To engage a reader’s attention.
To create characters.
To set a mood or create an atmosphere.
To being writing to life.
2.
Generic Structure :
Descriptive text has structure as below:
Identification: identifying the phenomenon to bedescribed.
Description: describing the phenomenon in parts,qualities, or/and characteristics.
3.
Lexico Grammatical :
Using Simple Present Tense.
Using action verbs.
Using passive voice.
Using noun phrase.
Using adverbial phrase.
Using technical terms.
Using general and abstract noun.
Using conjunction of time and cause-effect.
II. Lexico In Detail
1. Simple Present Tense :
Pattern :a) (+) S + Be (is, am, are) + ObjectS + Verb1
+
objectExample : - I am lazy.- You bring my book.b) (-) S + do/does + not + verb1 + ObjectS + be + not + ObjectExample : - I am not lazy.- You do not bring my book.
 
c) (?) Be + S + Object +?Do/does + S + Verb 1 + object +?Example : - Am I lazy?- Do you bring my book?We use the simple present tense when:
The action is general.
The action happens all the time, or habitually, in the past, presentand future.
The action is not only happening now.There are three important
exceptions
:
For positive sentences,
we do not normally use the auxiliary
.
For the 3rd person singular (he, she, it), we add
s
to the main verbor 
es
to the auxiliary.
For the verb
to be
, we do not use an auxiliary, even for questionsand negatives.the statement is always true.
2. Action Verbs
Picture 1 Picture 2
In Picture 1, a boy is playing with a ball, while in Picture 2,a girl is eating an ice cream. The words
playing
and
eating
tell us what the boy and girl are doing. Words that tell whatpeople or things do are called
Action Verbs
.Examples : - The ship sailed an hour ago.- The swimmer dived into the water.
3. Passive Voicea) Use of Passive
Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It isnot important or not known, however, who or what isperforming the action.
Example
: My bike was stolen.In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bikewas stolen. I do not know, however, who did it.Sometimesa statement in passive is more polite than active voice, asthe following example shows:
Example
: A mistake was made.In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made,but I do not blame anyone (e.g. You have made amistake.).
b) Form of Passive
 
Pattern :
Subject + finite form of 
to be
+ Past Participle (3rdcolumn of irregular verbs)Example
: A letter was written.When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note thefollowing:
The object of the active sentence becomes the subjectof the passive sentence.
The finite form of the verb is changed (
to be
+ pastparticiple).
The subject of the active sentence becomes the objectof the passive sentence (or is dropped).
c) Example of Passive
Active
: Rita is writing a letter.
Passive
: A letter is being written by Rita.
4. Noun Phrase
A
noun phrase
is either a single noun or pronoun or a group of wordscontaining a noun or a pronoun that function together as a noun or pronoun, as the subject or object of a verb.
a. Example of Noun PhrasesExample 1
: John was late.('John' is the noun phrase functioning as the subject of the verb.)
Example 2
: The people that I saw coming in the building at nine o'clock have just left.('The people ... nine o'clock' is a lengthy noun phrase, but it functions asthe subject of the main verb 'have just left'.)
5. Adverbial Phrase
An adverbial phrase is a group of related words which play the role of anadverb. Like all phrases, an adverbial phrase does not include a subject anda verb.
Example
:
o
Tony decided to move to Reading
yesterday
. (normal adverb)
o
Tony decided to move to Slough
in June last year
. (adverbialphrase)
6. General/Common Noun
A common noun is a noun that refers to a person, thing andplace.
Examples
: dog, house, picture, computer
Common nouns are represented in the singular andplural form.
Common nouns are represented by lower case letters.
Examples of the usage of common nouns:
The red book is on the table.
The black dog is in my yard.
The computers are new.
7. Abstract Noun

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