NERGY STORAGE DEVICES
At a pumped hydro facility,water is pumped into a storage reservoir at high elevationduring times when electricity is inexpensive and in lowdemand. Stored water is then released and used to powerhydroelectric turbines when demand for power is high.Pumped storage hydropower is currently the most widelyimplemented storage technology in the U.S. and the world.In the United States, 38 plants provide 19 gigawatts of power. New developments in pumps and turbines allowingfor adjustable water flow rates have increased the flexibilityand efficiency of pumped storage hydroelectric power;however, some limitations, such as suitable geographicsitting and facility size/capacity, still exist.
Compressed Air Energy Storage:
CAES uses highefficiency compressors to force air into undergroundreservoirs, such as mined caverns. When the commercialdemand for power is high, the stored air is allowed toexpand to atmospheric pressure through turbines connectedto electric generators that provide power to the grid.Currently, there are 2 large-scale demonstration plants inoperation, one in Germany and one in Alabama. In additionto these large-scale facilities, CAES can also be adapted foruse in distributed, small-scale operations through the use of high-pressure tanks or pipes.
Batteries have the potential to span a broadrange of energy storage applications due in part to theirportability, ease of use and variable storage capacity. Inparticular, they can stabilize electrical systems by rapidlyproviding extra power and by smoothing out ripples involtage and frequency. Currently, numerous batteriesincluding lead-acid, flow, sodium-sulfur, and lithium-ion allhave commercial applications. However, many battery typeshave only limited market penetration, are expensive, orhave short lifetimes.
Flywheels store energy in a spinning disk ona metal shaft. Increases in the speed of rotation, the mass of the disk and locating more of the mass closer to the rim of the disk will increase the amount of energy stored. Twogenerations of flywheels have produced increases in storagecapacity through increased disk mass (using steel) andincreased rotation speeds (using light weight compositematerials for the disk), but these have technical limitations.New prototypes utilize magnetic levitation to increasespeed
mass while minimizing previous technical issues.This technology is best utilized for applications requiringshort discharge time such as stabilizing voltage andfrequency. A flywheel farm approach, where several devicesare networked together, could allow for adaptation to large-scale energy management. Flywheels necessary for widercommercial energy storage applications are primarilylimited by materials properties and cost.
Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage:
Thesedevices are composed of superconducting windings thatallow electric current to be stored indefinitely with littleresistive energy losses. When the stored energy is needed,these devices can be discharged almost instantaneously withhigh power output over short time periods.Increasing the size of the windings can increase the amountof stored energy. However larger coils present a challengebecause the associated increase in magnetic field becomesmore difficult to contain. Further, the windings only exhibitthe necessary superconducting property at low temperature;therefore, expensive coolants are needed to make the currentdevices operable.
Electrochemical capacitorsstore energy in the form of two oppositely chargedelectrodes separated by an ionic solution. They are suitablefor fast-response, short-duration applications, such asbackup power during brief outages. They are excellent forstabilizing voltage and frequency. By proper networking,these devices might be used for longer time-scaleapplications. Electrochemical capacitors have severaladvantages including a temperature-independent response,low maintenance and long projected lifetimes (up to 20years), but they suffer from relatively high cost.
PRINCIPLE OF ENERGY STORAGE
The flywheel battery is an electromechanical approach toenergy storage. To store electricity a motor is used toconvert the electricity from an external source in to therotational energy of flywheel using the motor as a generatorthan extracting energy retriever. The stored energy isgeneral a complete system of flywheel battery consist of four parts1)
flywheel that stores energy2)
Bearing that supports the flywheel3)
Power electronic and control electronic.The amount of energy stored and released E is calculatedby means of equation
E = ½ J * w
where J = moment of inertia in kg-m
w = rotational speed in rad/sec.Even though the FESS can have many applications,dynamic voltage compensators, overload compensators andstartup of diesels, but in this paper the main focus is onFESS as an UPS.The MATLAB 7.1 is used to simulate FESS module.IV. UPS
TECHNOLOGYUninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) Market Flying Highwith the Flywheel Technology. Lead acid batteries havebeen the primary energy storage medium for a long time inIndustrial applications. Battery-based UPS systems are themost dominant and widely used power quality equipment.The following facts highlight the rationale behind some endusers considering an alternative energy storage solution
Every battery is subject to a charge-discharge cycle. Thisconsiderably reduces the life of a battery. Higher thedischarge, greater is the reduction in its life. Batteries reachtheir demise soon with frequent discharges, and hence,battery-based UPS systems are considered as a limited cycleservice. The UPS battery warranties are determined byfactors such as:
Duration of discharge
Number of instances of discharge
Length of time it takes the batteries to get charged