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Table Of Contents

Introduction
Computing Sub-basics
2.2 Files
2.5 Listing Files
2.7 Console Keys
2.8 Creating Files
2.10 Directories
PC Hardware
3.3 CMOS
3.4 Serial Devices
3.5 Modems
Basic Commands
4.1 The ls Command, Hidden Files, Command-Line Options
4.2 Error Messages
4.3 Wildcards, Names, Extensions, and glob Expressions
4.3.1 File naming
4.3.2 Glob expressions
4.4 Usage Summaries and the Copy Command
4.18 The PATH Where Commands Are Searched For
4.19 The -- Option
Regular Expressions
5.1 Overview
5.2 The fgrep Command
5.3 Regular Expression \{ \} Notation
5.5 Regular Expression Subexpressions
Editing Text Files
6.1 vi
6.2 Syntax Highlighting
6.3 Editors
6.3.1 Cooledit
6.3.2 vi and vim
6.3.3 Emacs
6.3.4 Other editors
Shell Scripting
7.1 Introduction
7.4 breaking Out of Loops and continueing
7.5 Looping Over Glob Expressions
7.6 The case Statement
7.7 Using Functions: the function Keyword
7.9 More on Command-Line Arguments: $@ and $0
7.10 Single Forward Quote Notation
7.11 Double-Quote Notation
7.12 Backward-Quote Substitution
Streams and sed — The Stream Editor
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Tutorial
8.3 Piping Using | Notation
8.4 A Complex Piping Example
8.5 Redirecting Streams with >&
8.6 Using sed to Edit Streams
8.7 Regular Expression Subexpressions
8.8 Inserting and Deleting Lines
9.1 Introduction
9.2 ps — List Running Processes
9.3 Controlling Jobs
9.4 Creating Background Processes
9.5 killing a Process, Sending Signals
9.6 List of Common Signals
9.7 Niceness of Processes, Scheduling Priority
9.8 Process CPU/Memory Consumption, top
9.9 Environments of Processes
10.1 Sending and Reading Mail
10.2 The SMTP Protocol — Sending Mail Raw to Port 25
User Accounts and User Ownerships
11.1 File Ownerships
11.2 The Password File /etc/passwd
11.3 Shadow Password File: /etc/shadow
11.4 The groups Command and /etc/group
11.5 Manually Creating a User Account
11.7 User Logins
11.7.1 The login command
11.7.2 The set user, su command
11.7.3 The who, w, and users commands to see who is logged in
11.7.4 The id command and effective UID
11.7.5 User limits
Using Internet Services
12.1 ssh, not telnet or rlogin
12.2 rcp and scp
12.3 rsh
12.4 FTP
12.5 finger
12.6 Sending Files by Email
12.6.1 uuencode and uudecode
12.6.2 MIME encapsulation
LINUX Resources
13.1 FTP Sites and the sunsite Mirror
13.2 HTTP — Web Sites
13.3 SourceForge
13.4 Mailing Lists
13.4.1 Majordomo and Listserv
13.4.2 *-request
13.5 Newsgroups
13.6 RFCs
Permission and Modification Times
14.1 The chmod Command
14.2 The umask Command
14.3 Modification Times: stat
Symbolic and Hard Links
15.1 Soft Links
15.2 Hard Links
Pre-installed Documentation
Overview of the UNIX Directory Layout
17.1 Packages
17.2 UNIX Directory Superstructure
18.1 Device Files
18.2 Block and Character Devices
18.3 Major and Minor Device Numbers
18.4 Common Device Names
18.5 dd, tar, and Tricks with Block Devices
18.5.1 Creating boot disks from boot images
18.5.2 Erasing disks
18.5.3 Identifying data on raw disks
18.5.4 Duplicating a disk
18.5.5 Backing up to floppies
18.5.6 Tape backups
18.5.7 Hiding program output, creating blocks of zeros
18.6 Creating Devices with mknod and /dev/MAKEDEV
Partitions, File Systems, Formatting, Mounting
19.1 The Physical Disk Structure
19.1.1 Cylinders, heads, and sectors
19.1.2 Large Block Addressing
19.1.3 Extended partitions
19.2 Partitioning a New Disk
19.3 Formatting Devices
19.3.1 File systems
19.3.2 mke2fs
19.3.3 Formatting floppies and removable drives
19.3.4 Creating MS-DOS floppies
19.3.5 mkswap, swapon, and swapoff
19.4 Device Mounting
19.4.1 Mounting CD-ROMs
19.4.2 Mounting floppy disks
19.4.3 Mounting Windows and NT partitions
19.5 File System Repair: fsck
19.6 File System Errors on Boot
19.7 Automatic Mounts: fstab
19.8 Manually Mounting /proc
19.9 RAM and Loopback Devices
19.9.1 Formatting a floppy inside a file
19.9.2 CD-ROM files
19.11 Disk sync
Advanced Shell Scripting
20.1 Lists of Commands
20.2 Special Parameters: $?, $*,
20.3 Expansion
20.4 Built-in Commands
20.5 Trapping Signals — the trap Command
20.6 Internal Settings — the set Command
20.7 Useful Scripts and Commands
20.7.1 chroot
20.7.2 if conditionals
20.7.3 patching and diffing
20.7.4 Internet connectivity test
20.7.5 Recursive grep (search)
20.7.6 Recursive search and replace
20.7.7 cut and awk — manipulating text file fields
20.7.8 Calculations with bc
20.7.9 Conversion of graphics formats of many files
20.7.10 Securely erasing files
20.7.11 Persistent background processes
20.7.12 Processing the process list
20.8 Shell Initialization
20.8.1 Customizing the PATH and LD LIBRARY PATH
20.9 File Locking
20.9.1 Locking a mailbox file
20.9.2 Locking over NFS
20.9.3 Directory versus file locking
20.9.4 Locking inside C programs
21.1 Using lpr
21.2 Downloading and Installing
21.3 LPRng vs. Legacy lpr-0.nn
21.4 Package Elements
21.4.1 Documentation files
21.4.2 Web pages, mailing lists, and download points
21.4.3 User programs
21.4.4 Daemon and administrator programs
21.4.5 Configuration files
21.4.6 Service initialization files
21.4.7 Spool files
21.4.8 Log files
21.4.9 Log file rotation
21.4.10 Environment variables
21.5 The printcap File in Detail
21.6 PostScript and the Print Filter
21.7 Access Control
21.8 Printing Troubleshooting
21.9 Useful Programs
21.9.1 printtool
21.9.2 apsfilter
21.9.3 mpage
21.9.4 psutils
21.10 Printing to Things Besides Printers
Trivial Introduction to C
22.1 C Fundamentals
22.1.1 The simplest C program
22.1.2 Variables and types
22.1.3 Functions
22.1.4 for, while, if, and switch statements
22.1.5 Strings, arrays, and memory allocation
22.1.6 String operations
22.1.7 File operations
22.1.8 Reading command-line arguments inside C programs
22.1.9 A more complicated example
22.1.10 #include statements and prototypes
22.1.11 C comments
22.1.12 #define and #if — C macros
22.2 Debugging with gdb and strace
22.2.1 gdb
22.2.2 Examining core files
22.2.3 strace
22.3 C Libraries
22.4 C Projects — Makefiles
22.4.1 Completing our example Makefile
22.4.2 Putting it all together
Shared Libraries
23.1 Creating DLL .so Files
23.2 DLL Versioning
23.3 Installing DLL .so Files
Source and Binary Packages
24.1 Building GNU Source Packages
24.2 RedHat and Debian Binary Packages
24.2.1 Package versioning
24.2.2 Installing, upgrading, and deleting
24.2.3 Dependencies
24.2.4 Package queries
24.2.5 File lists and file queries
24.2.6 Package verification
24.2.7 Special queries
24.2.8 dpkg/apt versus rpm
Introduction to IP
25.1 Internet Communication
25.2 Special IP Addresses
25.3 Network Masks and Addresses
25.4 Computers on a LAN
25.5 Configuring Interfaces
25.6 Configuring Routing
25.7 Configuring Startup Scripts
25.7.1 RedHat networking scripts
25.7.2 Debian networking scripts
25.8 Complex Routing — a Many-Hop Example
25.9 Interface Aliasing — Many IPs on One Physical Card
25.10 Diagnostic Utilities
25.10.2 traceroute
25.10.3 tcpdump
26.1 The TCP Header
26.2 A Sample TCP Session
26.3 User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
26.4 /etc/services File
26.5 Encrypting and Forwarding TCP
DNS and Name Resolution
27.1 Top-Level Domains (TLDs)
27.2 Resolving DNS Names to IP Addresses
27.2.1 The Internet DNS infrastructure
27.2.2 The name resolution process
27.3 Configuring Your Local Machine
27.4 Reverse Lookups
27.5 Authoritative for a Domain
27.6 The host, ping, and whois Command
27.7 The nslookup Command
27.7.1 NS, MX, PTR, A and CNAME records
27.8 The dig Command
Network File System, NFS
28.1 Software
28.2 Configuration Example
28.3 Access Permissions
28.4 Security
28.5 Kernel NFS
Services Running Under inetd
29.1 The inetd Package
29.2 Invoking Services with /etc/inetd.conf
29.2.1 Invoking a standalone service
29.2.2 Invoking an inetd service
29.2.3 Invoking an inetd “TCP wrapper” service
29.2.4 Distribution conventions
29.3 Various Service Explanations
29.4 The xinetd Alternative
29.5 Configuration Files
29.5.1 Limiting access
29.6 Security
exim and sendmail
30.1 Introduction
30.1.1 How mail works
30.1.2 Configuring a POP/IMAP server
30.1.3 Why exim?
30.2 exim Package Contents
30.3 exim Configuration File
30.3.1 Global settings
30.3.2 Transports
30.3.3 Directors
30.3.4 Routers
30.4 Full-blown Mail server
30.5 Shell Commands for exim Administration
30.6 The Queue
30.7 /etc/aliases for Equivalent Addresses
30.8 Real-Time Blocking List — Combating Spam
30.8.1 What is spam?
30.8.2 Basic spam prevention
30.8.3 Real-time blocking list
30.8.4 Mail administrator and user responsibilities
30.9 Sendmail
lilo, initrd, and Booting
31.1 Usage
31.2 Theory
31.2.1 Kernel boot sequence
31.2.2 Master boot record
31.2.3 Booting partitions
31.2.4 Limitations
31.3 lilo.conf and the lilo Command
31.4 Creating Boot Floppy Disks
31.5 SCSI Installation Complications and initrd
31.6 Creating an initrd Image
31.7 Modifying lilo.conf for initrd
31.8 Using mkinitrd
init, ?getty, and UNIX Run Levels
32.1 init — the First Process
32.2 /etc/inittab
32.2.1 Minimal configuration
32.2.2 Rereading inittab
32.2.3 The respawning too fast error
32.3 Useful Run Levels
32.4 getty Invocation
32.5 Bootup Summary
32.6 Incoming Faxes and Modem Logins
32.6.1 mgetty with character terminals
32.6.2 mgetty log files
32.6.3 mgetty with modems
32.6.4 mgetty receiving faxes
33.1 Fax Through Printing
33.2 Setgid Wrapper Binary
uucp and uux
34.1 Command-Line Operation
34.2 Configuration
34.3 Modem Dial
34.4 tty/UUCP Lock Files
34.5 Debugging uucp
34.6 Using uux with exim
34.7 Scheduling Dialouts
The LINUX File System Standard
35.1 Introduction
35.1.1 Purpose
35.1.2 Conventions
35.2 The Filesystem
35.3 The Root Filesystem
35.3.1 Purpose
35.3.2 Requirements
35.3.3 Specific Options
35.3.4 /bin : Essential user command binaries (for use by all users)
35.3.5 /boot : Static files of the boot loader
35.3.6 /dev : Device files
35.3.7 /etc : Host-specific system configuration
/etc ——— Host-specific system configuration
35.3.8 /home : User home directories (optional)
35.3.9 /lib : Essential shared libraries and kernel modules
35.3.10 /lib<qual>: Alternate format essential shared libraries (op- tional)
35.3.11 /mnt : Mount point for a temporarily mounted filesystem
35.3.12 /opt : Add-on application software packages
35.3.13 /root : Home directory for the root user (optional)
35.3.14 /sbin : System binaries
35.3.15 /tmp : Temporary files
35.4 The /usr Hierarchy
35.4.1 Purpose
35.4.2 Requirements
35.4.3 Specific Options
X11R6 X Window System, version 11 release 6 (optional)
35.4.5 /usr/bin : Most user commands
35.4.6 /usr/include : Directory for standard include files
35.4.7 /usr/lib : Libraries for programming and packages
35.4.8 /usr/lib<qual>: Alternate format libraries (optional)
35.4.9 /usr/local : Local hierarchy
35.4.10 /usr/sbin : Non-essential standard system binaries
35.4.11 /usr/share : Architecture-independent data
35.4.12 /usr/src : Source code (optional)
35.5 The /var Hierarchy
35.5.1 Purpose
35.5.2 Requirements
35.5.3 Specific Options
35.5.4 /var/account : Process accounting logs (optional)
35.5.5 /var/cache : Application cache data
35.5.6 /var/crash : System crash dumps (optional)
35.5.7 /var/games : Variable game data (optional)
35.5.8 /var/lib : Variable state information
35.5.9 /var/lock : Lock files
35.5.10 /var/log : Log files and directories
35.5.11 /var/mail : User mailbox files (optional)
35.5.12 /var/opt : Variable data for /opt
35.5.13 /var/run : Run-time variable data
35.5.14 /var/spool : Application spool data
35.5.15 /var/tmp : Temporary files preserved between system reboots
35.6 Operating System Specific Annex
35.6.1 Linux
35.7 Appendix
35.7.1 The FHS mailing list
35.7.2 Background of the FHS
35.7.3 General Guidelines
35.7.4 Scope
35.7.5 Acknowledgments
35.7.6 Contributors
httpd — Apache Web Server
36.1 Web Server Basics
36.2 Installing and Configuring Apache
36.2.1 Sample httpd.conf
36.2.2 Common directives
38.6.6 Inserting rows, “object relational”
38.6.7 Locating rows
38.6.8 Listing selected columns, and the oid column
38.6.9 Creating tables from other tables
38.6.10 Deleting rows
38.6.11 Searches
38.6.13 Dumping an entire database
38.6.14 More advanced searches
38.7 Real Database Projects
smbd — Samba NT Server
39.1 Samba: An Introduction by Christopher R. Hertel
39.2 Configuring Samba
39.3 Configuring Windows
39.4 Configuring a Windows Printer
39.5 Configuring swat
39.6 Windows NT Caveats
named — Domain Name Server
40.1 Documentation
40.2 Configuring bind
40.2.1 Example configuration
40.2.2 Starting the name server
40.2.3 Configuration in detail
40.3 Round-Robin Load-Sharing
40.4 Configuring named for Dialup Use
40.4.1 Example caching name server
40.4.2 Dynamic IP addresses
40.5 Secondary or Slave DNS Servers
Point-to-Point Protocol — Dialup Networking
41.1 Basic Dialup
41.1.1 Determining your chat script
41.1.2 CHAP and PAP
41.1.3 Running pppd
41.2 Demand-Dial, Masquerading
41.3 Dialup DNS
41.4 Dial-in Servers
41.5 Using tcpdump
41.6 ISDN Instead of Modems
The LINUX Kernel Source, Modules, and Hardware Support
42.1 Kernel Constitution
42.2 Kernel Version Numbers
42.3 Modules, insmod Command, and Siblings
42.4 Interrupts, I/O Ports, and DMA Channels
42.5 Module Options and Device Configuration
42.5.1 Five ways to pass options to a module
42.5.2 Module documentation sources
42.6 Configuring Various Devices
42.6.1 Sound and pnpdump
42.6.2 Parallel port
42.6.3 NIC — Ethernet, PCI, and old ISA
42.6.4 PCI vendor ID and device ID
42.6.5 PCI and sound
42.6.6 Commercial sound drivers
42.6.7 The ALSA sound project
42.6.8 Multiple Ethernet cards
42.6.9 SCSI disks
42.6.10 SCSI termination and cooling
42.6.11 CD writers
42.6.12 Serial devices
42.7 Modem Cards
42.8 More on LILO: Options
42.9 Building the Kernel
42.9.1 Unpacking and patching
42.9.2 Configuring
42. Kernel 42.10. Using Packaged Kernel Source
42.10 Using Packaged Kernel Source
42.11 Building, Installing
The X Window System
43.1 The X Protocol
43.2 Widget Libraries and Desktops
43.2.1 Background
43.2.2 Qt
43.2.3 Gtk
43.2.4 GNUStep
43.3 XFree86
43.3.1 Running X and key conventions
43.3.2 Running X utilities
43.3.3 Running two X sessions
43.3.4 Running a window manager
43.3.5 X access control and remote display
43.3.6 X selections, cutting, and pasting
43.4 The X Distribution
43.5 X Documentation
43.5.1 Programming
43.5.2 Configuration documentation
43.5.3 XFree86 web site
43.6 X Configuration
43.6.1 Simple 16-color X server
43.6.2 Plug-and-Play operation
43.6.3 Proper X configuration
43.7 Visuals
43.8 The startx and xinit Commands
43.9 Login Screen
43.10 X Font Naming Conventions
43.11 Font Configuration
43.12 The Font Server
44.1 Common Attacks
44.1.1 Buffer overflow attacks
44.1.2 Setuid programs
44.1.3 Network client programs
44.1.4 /tmp file vulnerability
44.1.5 Permission problems
44.1.6 Environment variables
44.1.7 Password sniffing
44.1.8 Password cracking
44.1.9 Denial of service attacks
44.2 Other Types of Attack
44.3 Counter Measures
44.3.1 Removing known risks: outdated packages
44.3.2 Removing known risks: compromised packages
44.3.3 Removing known risks: permissions
44.3.4 Password management
44.3.5 Disabling inherently insecure services
44.3.6 Removing potential risks: network
44.3.7 Removing potential risks: setuid programs
44.3.8 Making life difficult
44.3.9 Custom security paradigms
44.3.10 Proactive cunning
44.4 Important Reading
44.5 Security Quick-Quiz
44.6 Security Auditing
Lecture Schedule
A.1 Hardware Requirements
A.2 Student Selection
A.3 Lecture Style
B.1 Exam Details for 101
B.2 Exam Details for 102
C.1 RH020, RH030, RH033, RH120, RH130, and RH133
C.2 RH300
C.3 RH220 (RH253 Part 1)
C.4 RH250 (RH253 Part 2)
D.1 LINUX Overview
D.2 LINUX, GNU, and Licensing
D.3 LINUX Distributions
D.4 LINUX Support
D.5 LINUX Compared to Other Systems
D.6 Migrating to LINUX
D.7 Technical
The GNU General Public License Version 2
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