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1. Power Distribution Systems

1. Power Distribution Systems

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Published by: Alcides Villarreal Polo on Mar 30, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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 CA08104001E For more information visit:
 January 2008
 Power Distribution Systems1.0-1
Power DistributionSystems
Power Distribution SystemsSystem Design
1.1-17Generator System Design
1.2-5System Analysis
1.4-6Grounding/Ground Fault Protection
1.4-14Power Quality
1.4-32Reference Data
Designing a Distribution System
 For more information visit:
 CA08104001EJanuary 2008
 Power Distribution Systems
 This page intentionally left blank.
 CA08104001E For more information visit:
 January 2008
 Power Distribution Systems
 System Design
 Basic Principles
The best distribution system is onethat will, cost effectively and safely,supply adequate electric service toboth present and future probableloads — this section is included to aidin selecting, designing and installingsuch a system.The function of the electric powerdistribution system in a building orinstallation site is to receive power atone or more supply points and deliverit to the individual lamps, motors, andall other electrically operated devices.The importance of the distributionsystem to the function of a buildingmakes it almost imperative that thebest system be designed and installed.In order to design the best distributionsystem, the system design engineermust have information concerning theloads and a knowledge of the varioustypes of distribution systems that areapplicable. The various categories ofbuildings have many specific designchallenges, but certain basic principlesare common to all. Such principles,if followed, will provide a soundlyexecuted design.The basic principles or factors requir-ing consideration during design ofthe power distribution system include:
Functions of structure, presentand future.
Life and flexibility of structure.
Locations of service entrance anddistribution equipment, locationsand characteristics of loads,locations of unit substations.
Demand and diversity factorsof loads.
Sources of power; includingnormal, standby and emergency(see
Section 42
Continuity and quality ofpower available and required(see
Section 41
Energy efficiency and management.
Distribution and utilization voltages.
Bus and/or cable feeders.
Distribution equipment andmotor control.
Power and lighting panelboardsand motor control centers.
Types of lighting systems.
Installation methods.
Power monitoring systems.
Electric utility requirements.
 Modern Electric PowerTechnologies
Several new factors to consider inmodern power distribution systemsresult from two relatively recentchanges. The first recent change isutility deregulation. The traditionaldependence on the utility for problemanalysis; energy conservation mea-surements and techniques; and asimplified cost structure for electricityhas changed. The second change is lessobvious to the designer yet will havean impact on the types of equipmentand systems being designed. It is thediminishing quantity of qualified build-ing electrical operators; maintenancedepartments; and facility engineers.Modern electric power technologiesmay be of use to the designer andbuilding owner in addressing thesenew challenges. The advent of micro-processor devices (smart devices)into power distribution equipment hasexpanded facility owners’ options andcapabilities, allowing for automatedcommunication of vital power systeminformation (both energy data andsystem operation information) andelectrical equipment control.These technologies may be grouped as:
Power monitoring and control.
Building management systemsinterfaces.
Lighting control.
Automated energy management.
Predictive diagnostics.Various sections of this guide coverthe application and selection of suchsystems and components that may beincorporated into the power equip-ment being designed. See
Sections 2,3, 4, 23

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