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sp ch15 prt3

sp ch15 prt3

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Published by irregularflowers
Notes on Speilvogel Chapter 15 (Part 3: Absolutism in Central, Eastern, and Northern Europe)
Notes on Speilvogel Chapter 15 (Part 3: Absolutism in Central, Eastern, and Northern Europe)

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SP CH.15 PT3 Pg. 425-432
Absolutism in Central, Eastern, and Northern EuropeI
. During the 17thc Prussia, Austria, and Russia appeared as growing powers inEastern EuropeThe German States
I
. The Peace of Westphalia, which ended the 30 Years’ War in 1648, left each of the states in the HRE virtually autonomous and sovereign. There was no longer aGerman Empire but 300 little Germanies.The Rise of Brandenburg-Prussia
I.
The evolution of Brandenburg into a powerful state was largely the work of Hohenzollern dynasty, which in 1415 had come to rule the principality innortheastern Germany.
A
. In 1609, the H inherited some lands in the Rhine valley in westernGermany, 9 years later they received the duchy of Prussia.
B
. By the 17thc, the dominions of the house of H, now called B-P,consisted of 3 disconnected masses in western, central, and easternGermany; only the H ruler connected them
II
. The foundation for the P state was laid by Frederick William the Great Elector,who came to power in the midst of the 30YW. Realizing that B-P was small, openterritory with no natural defense, FW built a standing army.
A
. By 1678, he possessed a force of 40thou men that took over 50% of thestate’s revenues.
B
. To sustain the army and his own power, FW established the GeneralWar Commissariat to levy taxes for the army and oversea its growth andtraining. The GWC evolved into an agency for civil government as well.
C
. Directly responsible to the elector, the new bureaucratic machine became his chief instrument for governing the state. Many of its officialswere members of the Prussian landed aristocracy, the Junkers, who alsoserved as officers in the army
III
. The nobles’ support of FW’s policies derived from the tacit agreement that hemade with them to eliminate their power in their Estates-General.
A
. In return for a free hand in running the government, he gave the noblesalmost unlimited power over their peasants, exempted nobles fromtaxation, and awarded them the highest ranks in the army and the GWCw/the understanding that they would not challenge his political control.
B
. The nobles were allowed to appropriate their land and bind them to thesoil as serfs. Serfdom was not new in B-P, but FW reinforced it throughhis concessions to the nobles.
IV
. To Build B-P economy, FW followed mercantilist policies using high tariffs,subsidies, and monopolies for manufacturers to stimulate domestic industry andthe construction of roads and canals. At the same time however, he continued tofavor the interests of the nobility at the expense of the commercial and industrialmiddle class in towns.
V.
FW laid the groundwork for the P state; his son Frederick III made one further contribution: in return for aiding the HRE in the War of the Spanish Succession,he was officially granted the title of king-in-Prussia.
 
A
. Thus was Elector FIII transformed into King FIThe Emergence of Austria
I.
The Austrian Habsburgs had long played a significant role in E politics as HR Emperors, but by the end of the 30YW, the Hab hopes of creating an empire inGermany had been dashed.
II.
In the 17thc, the house of Austria had made an important transition; the Gempire was lost, but a new empire was created in east and southeast E
III
. The nucleus of the new A empire remained the traditional A hereditary possessions: Lower and Upper A, Cartinthia, Carniola, Styria, and Tyrol.
A.
To these had been added the kingdom of Bohemia and parts of northwest Hungary in the 16thc
IV.
In the 17thc,
 
Leopold I encouraged the eastward movement of the A Empire, but he was sorely challenged by the revival of the Ottoman Empire in the 17thc.
A.
Having moved into Transylvania, the O eventually pushed westwardand laid siege to Vienna in 1683.
B.
A E army, led by the A, counterattacked and decisively defeated the Oin 1687.
C
. By the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699, A took control of Hungary,Transylvania, Croatia, and Slovenia, thus establishing an AE insoutheastern E.
V.
At the end of the War of the Spanish Succession, A gained possession of theSpanish Netherlands and received formal recognition of its occupation of the S possessions in Italy (Milan, Mantua, Sardinia, Naples)
A.
By the beginning of the 18thc, the house of A had acquired an empireof considerable size
VI
. The A monarchy, never became a highly centralized state, primarily b/c itincluded so many national groups.
A.
The AE remained a collection of territories held together by a personalunion.
B
. The H emperor was archduke of A, king of Bohemia, and king of Hungary. Each of these areas had their own laws, Estates-General, and political life.
C.
The landed aristocrats throughout the empire were connected by acommon bond of service to the house of H, as military officers or government bureaucrats, but no other common sentiment tied the regionstogether.Italy: From Spanish to Austrian Rule
I
. By 1530, Emperor Charles V had managed to defeat the French armies in Italyand become the arbiter of Italy.
A
. Initially, he was content to establish close ties w/many native Italianrulers and allow them to rule, provided that they recognize his dominantrole.
B
. In 1540, he gave the duchy of Milan to his son Philip II and transferredall imperial rights over Italy to the S monarchy
II
. From the beginning of PII reign in 1559 until 1713, the S presence was felteverywhere in Italy.
 
A
. Only Florence, the Papal States, and Venice managed to maintainrelatively independent policies.
B
. At the same time, the influence of the papacy became oppressive inItaly as the machinery of the Catholic Counter-Reformation—theInquisition, the Index, and Jesuits—was used to stifle all resistance to theCatholic orthodoxy created by the Council of Trent
III
. At the beginning of the 18thc, Italy suffered further from the struggles b/wFrance and Spain.
A
. It was A, not France, that benefited most from the WOFTSS. Bygaining Milan, Mantua, Sardinia, and Naples, A supplanted S as thedominate power in ItalyRussia: From Fledgling Principality to Major Power 
I.
A new Russian state had emerged in the 15thc under the leadership of the principality of Moscow and its grand dukes. In the 16thc, Ivan IV the Terribleexpanded the territories of R eastward after finding westward expansion blocked by Swedish and Polish states.
A
. Ivan also extended the autocracy of the tsar by crushing the power of the R nobility, known as the
 
 boyars
B.
Ivan’s dynasty came to an end in 1598 and was followed by aresurgence of aristocratic power in a period of anarchy known as the Time
 
of Troubles. It did not end until the Zemsky Sobor, or national assembly,chose Michael Romanov as the new tsar, beginning a dynasty that wouldlast until 1917.
II
. In the 17thc, Muscovite society was high stratified. At the top was the tsar,who claimed to be divinely ordained autocratic ruler.
A
. R society was dominated by an upper class of landed aristocrats who,in the course of the 17thc, managed to bind their peasants to the land. Anabundance of land and a shortage of peasants made serfdom desirable tothe landowners. Townspeople were also controlled.
B
. Many merchants were not allowed to move from their cities w/ogovernment permission or to sell their businesses to anyone outside their class.
C
. In the 17thc, merchant and peasant revolts as well as a schism in the R Orthodox church created very unsettled conditions.
D
. In the midst of these political and religious upheavals, 17thc Moscowwas experiencing more frequent contacts w/the west, and western ideaswere beginning to penetrate a few R circles.The Reign of Peter the Great (1689-1725)
I
. Peter gained a firsthand account of the west when he made a trip there in 1697-1698 and returned to R w/a firm determination to westernize.
A
. Peter’s policy of Europeanization was largely technical. He admired Etechnology and desired to transplant it to R. Only this kind of modernization could give him the army and navy he needed to make R agreat power.
II
. One of his 1
st
priorities was the reorganization of the army and creating a navy.

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