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Published by irregularflowers
Notes on Speilvogel Chapter 17- Eighteenth Century: An Age of Enlightenment
Notes on Speilvogel Chapter 17- Eighteenth Century: An Age of Enlightenment

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Sp. Ch.17 Pg 473-484
Chapter 17: The Eighteenth Century: An Age of EnlightenmentThe Enlightenment
I.
In 1784, the German philosopher Immanuel Kant defined the Enlightenment as “man’sleaving his self-caused immaturity. Whereas earlier periods had been handicapped by theinability to “use one’s intelligence without the guidance of another.”
A.
Kant proclaimed as the motto for the Enlightenment: “Dare to know! Have courageto use your intelligence!”
B.
The 18thc Enlightenment was a movement of intellectuals who dared to know. Theywere greatly impressed w/the accomplishments of the SR, and they advocated theapplication of the scimeth to the understanding of all life.C.All institutions and all systems of thought were subject to the rational, scientific wayof thinking if only people would free themselves from old traditions, especiallyreligious ones.
D.
They believed that if Isaac Newton could discover the natural laws regulating theworld of nature, they too, by using reason, could find the laws that governed humansociety. This belief in turn led them to believe that they could make progress towarda better society than the one they had inherited.The Paths to Enlightenment
I.
The intellectuals of the 18
th
c were influenced by the revolutionary thinkers of the 17
th
c.The Popularization of Science
I.
Although the intellectuals of the 18
th
c were influenced by the scientific ideas of the 17
th
c,they did not always acquire this knowledge directly from the original sources.
A.
Scientific ideas were spread to ever-widening circles of educated European not byscientists themselves but by popularizers.B.Science was no longer monopoly of experts but part of literature.
II.
Skepticism of the church grew at the end of the 17
th
c by portraying the churches as theenemies of scientific progress.A New Skepticism
I.
The great scientists of the 17
th
c, including Kepler, Galileo, and Newton, had pursued their work in a spirit of exalting God, not undermining Christianity. But as scientificknowledge spread, more educated men and women began to question religious truths andvalues.
A.
Skepticism about religion and a growing secularization of thought were especiallyevident in the work of Pierre Bayle, who was a leading critic of traditional religiousattitudes.B.He attacked superstition, religious intolerance, and dogmatism. In his view,compelling people to believe a particular set of religious ideas was wrong. It createdhypocrites and was contrary to what religion was about. Individual conscienceshould determine one’s actions.
II.
Bayle was one of a # of intellectuals who believed that the new rational principles of textual criticism could be applied to the Bible as well as secular documents.The Impact of Travel Literature
I.
Skepticism about both Christianity and European culture itself was nourished by travelreports.
A.
In the course of the 17
th
c, traders, missionaries, medical practitioners, and explorers began to publish an increasing # of travel books that gave accounts of many differentcultures.
B.
The new geographical adventures of the 18
th
c, especially the discovery of the Pacificisland of Tahiti and of New Zealand and Australia by James Cook, aroused muchenthusiasm.
 
C.
Cook’s
Travels
, an account of his journey, b/came a best seller.II.Educated Europeans responded to these accounts of lands abroad in different ways.
A.
For some intellectuals, the existence of exotic peoples presented an image of a“natural man” who was happier than Europeans. The idea of a “noble savage” would play an important role in the political work of some philosophes.
III.
The travel literature of the 17
th
and 18
th
c also led to the realization that there were highlydeveloped civilizations w/diff customs in other parts of the world.
A.
Some Europeans intellectuals began to evaluate their own civilization relative toothers. What had seemed to be practices grounded in reason appeared to be mattersof custom. Certainties about European practices gave way to cultural relativism.
B.
Cultural relativism was accompanied by religious skepticism.C.As these travel accounts made clear, the Christian perception of God was merely oneof many. Some people were devastated by realization. (Those poor things…not)The Legacy of Locke and Newton 
I.
Enchanted by the grand design of the Newtonian world machine, the intellectuals of theEnlightenment were convinced that by following Newton’s rules of reasoning, they coulddiscover the natural laws that governed politics, economics, justice, religion, and the arts.
II.
John Locke’s theory of knowledge especially influenced the phiolosophes.
A.
Locke denied Descartes’ belief in innate ideas. Instead, argued Locke, every personis born w/a tabula rasa, a blank mind.
B.
Our knowledge, then is derived from our environment, not from hereditary; fromreason, not from faith. Locke’s philosophy implied that that people were modeled bytheir environment, by the experiences that they received through their senses fromthe surrounding world.C.By changing the environment and subjecting people to the proper influences, theycould be changed and a new society created.
III.
 Newton’s reason provided a way to implement Locke’s ideas. Taken together, their ideasseemed to offer the hope of a “brave new world”(Like Huxley, oh my God!!!) built onreason.The Philosophes and Their Ideas
I.
The intellectuals of the Enlightenment were known by the French term
 philosophe
,although not all of them were French and few were philosophers.A.They were literary people, professors journalists, statesmen, economists, politicalscientists, and above all, social reformers.
B.
They cam from both the nobility and the middle class, and a few stemmed fromlower origins. Although it was a truly international and cosmopolitan movement, theEnlightenment also enhanced the dominant role being played by French culture.
C.
Paris was its recognized capital, and most leaders of the Enlightenment were French.The French intellectuals in turn affected intellectuals elsewhere and created amovement that engulfed the entire western world.
II.
The philosophes shared common bonds as part of a truly international movement.
A.
They believed that the role of philosophy was to change the world, not just discuss it.To the philosophes, rationalism did not mean the creation of a grandiose system of thought to explain all things. Reason was scientific method, an appeal to facts andexperience. A spirit of rational criticism was applied to everything, including religionand politics.
III.
The philosophe’s call for freedom of expression is a reminder that their work was done ina time of censorship.
A.
The philosophes were not free to write whatever they chose.B.State censors decided what could and could not be published, and protests from any# of government bodies could result in the seizure of books and imprisonment of their authors, publishers, and sellers.
 
C.
The philosophes found ways to get around state censorship. Some published under  pseudonyms, anonymously, or aboard, especially in Holland.D.Books were published and circulated secretly or in manuscript to avoid censors.
IV.
Although the philosophes formed a kind of “family circle,” they often disagreed.
A.
Each succeeding generation of the Enlightenment b/came more radical as it built onthe contributions of the previous one.Montesquieu and Political Thought
I.
Much of the program of the French Enlightenment is contained in his work: the attack of tradition religion, the advocacy of religious toleration, the denunciation of slavery, andthe use of reason to liberate human beings from their prejudices.
II.
Montesquieu’s most famous work,
The Spirit of the Laws
, was published in 1748.
A.
This treatise was a comparative study of governments in which Montesquieuattempted to apply the scimeth to the social and political arena to ascertain the“natural laws” governing the social relationships of human beings.
B.
Montesquieu distinguished 3 kinds of governments: republics, suitable for smallstates and based on citizen involvement; monarchy, appropriate for middle-sizedstates and grounded in the ruling class’s adherence to law; a despotism, apt for largeempires and dependent on fear to inspire obedience.
III.
Montesquieu’s praise of England and its constitution as an example as the 2
nd
type of government led to his most far-reaching and lasting contribution to political thought—theimportance of checks and balances created by a means of separation of powers.A.He believed that England’s system, w/its separate executive, legislative, and judicial powers that served to limit and control each other, provided the greatest freedom andsecurity for a state.
B.
In large part, Montesquieu misread the English situation and insisted on separation of  powers b/c he wanted the nobility of France to play an active role in the running of the French government.IV.After being translated into English it inspired Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, JohnAdams, Alexander Hamilton, and Thomas Jefferson, who incorporated its principles intothe U.S. ConstitutionVoltaire and the EnlightenmentI.His wit made him a darling of the Parisian intellectuals but also involved him a quarrelw/a dissolute nobleman that forced him to flee France and live in England for almost 2years.A.Well received in English literary and social circles, England was impressed by him aswell.B.He had a deep admiration for English life, especially its freedom of press, its political freedom, and its religious toleration
II.
Although he touched on all of the themes of importance to the philosophes, Voltaire wasespecially well-known for his criticism of traditional religion and his strong attachment tothe ideal of religious toleration.A.He lent his prestige and skills as a polemicist to fight cases of intolerance in France
B.
In 1763, he wrote
Treatise on Toleration
, in which he argued that religious tolerationhad created no problems for England and Holland and reminded governments that“all men are brothers under God.”
C.
As he grew older, he b/came even more strident in his denunciations. “Crush theinfamous thing,” he repeated—the infamous thing being religious fanaticism,intolerance, and superstition.
III.
Throughout his life, Voltaire championed not only religious tolerance but also deism, areligious outlook shared by most other philosophes.
A.
Deism was built on the Newtonian world-machine, which suggested the existence of a mechanic (God) who had created the universe

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