To Bach, music was a means to worship God.
Handel experienced a stormy international career and was profoundly secular intemperament.
Although patronized by the English royal court, Handel wrote music for large publicaudiences and wrote large-sounding pieces.
Although Bach and Handel composed many instrumental suites and concerti, orchestralmusic didn’t come to the fore until the 2
½ of the 18
c, when the piano appeared.
A new musical period, the classical era, also emerged, represented by Haydn andMozart. Their renown caused the musical center of Europe to shift from Italy andGermany to the Austrian Empire.
Haydn was incredibly prolific, composing 104 symphonies in addition to stringquartets, concerti, songs, oratorios, and Masses.
His visits to England introduced him to another world, where musicians wrote for public concerts rather than patrons. This “liberty” as he called it, induced him towrite his 2 great oratorios,
, both of which werededicated to the common people
The concerto, symphony, and opera all reached their zenith in the works of Mozart, achild prodigy. He sought a patron but his discontent w/the archbishop of Salzburgforced him to move to Vienna, where his failure to find a permanent patron made hislife miserable.
Mozart carried the tradition of Italian comic opera to new heights. Mozart composedw/an ease of melody and a blend of grace, precision, and emotion that arguably noone has ever excelled.The Development of the Novel
c was also decisive in the development of the novel. The novel was not acompletely new literary genre but grew out of the medieval romances and the stories of the 16
c.A.The English are credited w/establishing the modern novel as the chief vehicle for fiction writing. W/no established rules, the novel was open to much experimentation.It also proved attractive to women readers and writers.
Samuel Richardson wrote
Pamela: or, Virtue Rewarded
, which focused on a servant girl’sresistance to numerous seduction attempts of by her master. After reading the girl’s lettersabout what she thinks about him, he realizes that she has a good mind and marries her.
won Richardson a large audience as he appealed to the growing cult of sensibility in the 18
c—the taste for the sentimental and emotional.
Reacting against the moral seriousness of Richardson, Henry Fielding wrote stories about people w/o scruples who survived by their wits.
His best work was
The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling
, a lengthy novel about thenumerous adventures of a young scoundrel.
Fielding presented English life from the hovels of London to the country homes of the aristocracy.
Although he emphasized action rather than inner feeling, Fielding did his ownmoralizing by attacking the hypocrisy of his age.The Writing of History
The philosophes were responsible for creating a revolution in the writing of history. Their secular orientation caused them to eliminate the role of God in history and freed them toconcentrate on events themselves and search for casual relationships in the natural worldII.The philosophe-historians also broadened the scope of history from the humanists’ preoccupation w/politics.A.Politics still predominated in the work of Enlightenment historians, but they also paid attention to economic, social, intellectual and cultural developments.