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Published by irregularflowers
Notes on Speilvogel Chapter 17 (Part 2: Culture and Society in the Enlightenment)
Notes on Speilvogel Chapter 17 (Part 2: Culture and Society in the Enlightenment)

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SP. Ch.17 part 2 485-499
Culture and Society in the Enlightenment
Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
I.
Although the Baroque and Neoclassical styles that had dominated the 17
th
c continued intothe 18
th
c, by the 1730s a new style known as Rococo had begun to affect decoration andarchitecture all over Europe.
A.
Rococo stressed grace and gentle action.
B.
Rococo rejected strict geometrical patterns and had a fondness for curves; it liked tofollow the wandering lines on natural objects, such as seashells and flowers.C.It made use of interlaced designs colored in gold w/delicate contours and gracefulcurves.D.Highly secular, it lightness and charm spoke of the pursuit of pleasure, happiness,and love.
II.
Some of Rococo’s appeal is evident in the works of Antoine Watteau, whose lyrical viewsof aristocratic life—refined, sensual, civilized, w/gentlemen and ladies in elegant dress— reflected a world of upper-class pleasure and joy.
A.
Underneath the exterior was an element of sadness as the artist revealed the fragilityand transitory nature of pleasure, love, and life.
III.
Another aspect of Rococo was that its decorative work could easily be used w/Baroquearchitecture.A.The palace of Versailles had an enormous impact on Europe. “Keeping up w/theBourbons” became important as the Austrian emperor, the Swedish king, German princes and prince-bishops, Italian princes, and a Russian tsar built grandiose palaces.
B.
This Baroque-Rococo architectural style of the 18
th
c was used in both palaces andchurches.
IV.
 Neumann was one of the greatest architects of the 18
th
cA.Secular and spiritual become easily interchangeable as lavish and fanciful ornament;light, bright colors; and elaborate and rich detail greet the visitor in his buildings.
V.
Despite the popularity of the Rococo style, Neoclassicism continued to maintain a strongappeal and in the late 18
th
c emerged in France as an established movement.
A.
 Neoclassical artists wanted to recapture the dignity and simplicity of the classicalstyle of ancient Greece and Rome.B.Some were especially influenced by the recent excavations of the ancient cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii.
C.
Classical elements are evident in the works of Jacques-Louis David. Is Neoclassicalstyle, w/its moral seriousness and its emphasis on honor and patriotism, made himextremely popular during the French Revolution.The Development of Music
I.
The 17
th
and 18
th
c were the formative years of classical music and saw the rise of theopera and oratorio, the sonata, the concerto, and the symphony.
A.
The Italians were the 1
st
to develop these genres and were soon followed by theGermans, Austrians, and English.B.As in previous centuries, most musicians depended on a patron. The many individual princes, archbishops, and bishops, each w/his own court, provided the patronage thatmade Italy and Germany the musical leaders of Europe.
II.
Many of the techniques of the Baroque music style, which dominated Europe b/w 1600and 1750, were perfected by 2 composers—Bach and Handel.
A.
Bach held the post of organist and music director at a number of small Germancourts b/f becoming director of church music at the Church of Saint Thomas in 1723.B.There he composed the pieces that have given him the reputation of being 1 of thegreatest composers of all time.
 
C.
To Bach, music was a means to worship God.
D.
Handel experienced a stormy international career and was profoundly secular intemperament.
E.
Although patronized by the English royal court, Handel wrote music for large publicaudiences and wrote large-sounding pieces.
III.
Although Bach and Handel composed many instrumental suites and concerti, orchestralmusic didn’t come to the fore until the 2
nd
½ of the 18
th
c, when the piano appeared.
A.
A new musical period, the classical era, also emerged, represented by Haydn andMozart. Their renown caused the musical center of Europe to shift from Italy andGermany to the Austrian Empire.
B.
Haydn was incredibly prolific, composing 104 symphonies in addition to stringquartets, concerti, songs, oratorios, and Masses.
C.
His visits to England introduced him to another world, where musicians wrote for  public concerts rather than patrons. This “liberty” as he called it, induced him towrite his 2 great oratorios,
The Creation
and
The Seasons
, both of which werededicated to the common people
D.
The concerto, symphony, and opera all reached their zenith in the works of Mozart, achild prodigy. He sought a patron but his discontent w/the archbishop of Salzburgforced him to move to Vienna, where his failure to find a permanent patron made hislife miserable.
E.
Mozart carried the tradition of Italian comic opera to new heights. Mozart composedw/an ease of melody and a blend of grace, precision, and emotion that arguably noone has ever excelled.The Development of the Novel
I.
The 18
th
c was also decisive in the development of the novel. The novel was not acompletely new literary genre but grew out of the medieval romances and the stories of the 16
th
c.A.The English are credited w/establishing the modern novel as the chief vehicle for fiction writing. W/no established rules, the novel was open to much experimentation.It also proved attractive to women readers and writers.
II.
Samuel Richardson wrote
 Pamela: or, Virtue Rewarded 
, which focused on a servant girl’sresistance to numerous seduction attempts of by her master. After reading the girl’s lettersabout what she thinks about him, he realizes that she has a good mind and marries her.
A.
 Pamela
won Richardson a large audience as he appealed to the growing cult of sensibility in the 18
th
c—the taste for the sentimental and emotional.
III.
Reacting against the moral seriousness of Richardson, Henry Fielding wrote stories about people w/o scruples who survived by their wits.
A.
His best work was
The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling 
, a lengthy novel about thenumerous adventures of a young scoundrel.
B.
Fielding presented English life from the hovels of London to the country homes of the aristocracy.
C.
Although he emphasized action rather than inner feeling, Fielding did his ownmoralizing by attacking the hypocrisy of his age.The Writing of History
I.
The philosophes were responsible for creating a revolution in the writing of history. Their secular orientation caused them to eliminate the role of God in history and freed them toconcentrate on events themselves and search for casual relationships in the natural worldII.The philosophe-historians also broadened the scope of history from the humanists preoccupation w/politics.A.Politics still predominated in the work of Enlightenment historians, but they also paid attention to economic, social, intellectual and cultural developments.
 
III.The weaknesses of these philosophe-historians stemmed from their preoccupations as philosophes.A.Following the ideals of the classics that dominated their minds, the philosophessought to instruct as well as entertain. Their goal was to help civilize their age, andhistory could play a role by revealing its lessons according to their vision.
B.
Their emphasis on science and reason and their dislike of Christianity made themless sympathetic to the Middle Ages. That sentiment shown in the work of EdwardGibbon,
 Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
. Gibbon portrayed the growth of Christianity as a major reason for Rome’s collapse.The High Culture of the Eighteenth CenturyI.High culture usually means the literary and artistic world of the educated and wealthyruling classes. Popular culture refers to the written and unwritten lore of the masses, mostof which were passed down orally.
A.
By the 18
th
c, European high culture consisted of a learned world of theologians,scientists, philosophers, intellectuals, poets, and dramaticists, for whom Latinremained a truly international language. Their work was supported by a wealthy andliterate lay group, the most important of whom were the landed aristocracy and thewealthier upper classes in the cities.
II.
Especially noticeable in the 18
th
c was an expansion of both the reading public and publishing.A.Though many newspaper titles were still aimed at small groups of the educated elite,many were also directed to the new reading public of the middle classes, whichincluded women and urban artisans.
B.
The growth of publishing houses made it possible for authors to make money fromtheir works and be less dependent on wealthy patrons.
III.
An important aspect of the growth of publishing and reading in the 18
th
c was thedevelopment of magazines for the general public.
A.
Although short-lived, the best known was Joseph Addison and Richard Steele’s
Spectator 
, begun in 1711. In keeping w/1 of the chief intellectual goals of the philosophes, the
Spectator 
wished to instruct and entertain at the same time.B.W/its praise of family, marriage, and courtesy, it also had a strong appeal to women.
IV.
Along w/magazines came daily newspapers. Filled w/news and special, they wererelatively cheap and were provided free in coffeehouses.
A.
Books, too, received wider circulation through the development of the publiclibraries in the cities as well as private circulating libraries which offered books for rent.Education and Universities
I.
By the 18
th
c, Europe was home to a large number of privately endowed secondaryschools, such as grammar and public school in England, the gymnasium in German-speaking lands, and the
college
in France and Spain.A.These schools tended to be elitist, designed to meet the needs of the children of theupper class.B.European secondary schools perpetuated the class hierarchy of Europe rather thancreating avenues for social mobility. In fact, most of the philosophes reinforced the belief that education should function to keep people in their own social class.II.The curriculum of secondary schools was still largely concentrated on the Greek andLatin classics w/little attention paid to mathematics, the sciences, and modern languages.A.Complaints from philosophe-reformers, as well as from merchants and middle-class people who wanted their sons to have a more practical education, led to thedevelopment of new schools designed to provide a broader education.
B.
In Germany, the 1
st
 
 Realschule
was opened in Berlin in 1747 and offered modernlanguages, geography, and bookkeeping to prepare boys for careers in business.C.New schools of this kind were also made for upper-class girls, although they focusedon religion and domestic skills.

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