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Chapter 17 - Industrial Supremacy

Chapter 17 - Industrial Supremacy

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Published by David W.
Alan Brinkley: American History: A Survey (Eleventh Edition).
Alan Brinkley: American History: A Survey (Eleventh Edition).

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Published by: David W. on Mar 30, 2011
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David WillmoreAP US - Pd. 53 January 2011
Industrial Supremacy
Chapter 17
Chapter Summary:
Although some economists place the industrial "take-off" of America in the years before the CivilWar, it was in the three decades following that great conflict that the United States became theworld's leading industrial power. A fortunate combination of sufficient raw materials, adequatelabor, enviable technological accomplishments, effective business leadership, nationwidemarkets, and supportive state and national governments boosted America past its internationalrivals. The industrial transformation had a profound impact on the lives of the millions of workers who made the production revolution possible. Some who were distrustful of industrialpower turned toward socialism; others tried to organize workers into powerful unions. But, inthese early years of industrial conflict, the forces of business usually triumphed.
Points for Discussion:
1. How did the half-dozen main factors combine to produce America's impressive rise toindustrial supremacy?2. Which inventions of the late nineteenth century had the greatest impact on industry andurban life?3. Both the success-oriented novels of Horatio Alger and the utopian works of Edward Bellamy were best-sellers in late-nineteenth-century America. What might explain this paradox of Americans' wanting to read about both how great their country was and how greatly itneeded to improve?4. Describe the evolution of the modern corporation in this era and its role in promotingindustrial expansion.5. The so-called robber barons both praised unfettered free enterprise and tried to eliminatecompetition. How can these apparently conflicting positions be reconciled?6. What philosophies of the late nineteenth century allowed industrial tycoons to rationalizetheir methods and powers?7. Analyze the criticisms made of "laissez-faire" capitalism by some Americans of the latenineteenth century. Of the alternative visions suggested for America's economic future,which was the "best" and why?8. In what ways was the experience of industrialization a mixed blessing for the Americanworker? Describe the changes of the late nineteenth century in the nature of the workforceand conditions of the workplace.9. Describe the various attempts made during the late nineteenth century to create a nationallabor organization. Analyze the successes and failures of these individual organizations, aswell as the overall weaknesses of the American labor movement at this time.10. Explain how the railroad became a symbol of progress in America.
Main Themes:
1. How various factors (raw materials, labor supply, technology, business organization,growing markets, and friendly governments) combined to thrust the United States intoworldwide industrial leadership.2. How this explosion of industrial capitalism was both extolled for its accomplishments andattacked for its excesses.3. How American workers, who on the average benefited, reacted to the physical andpsychological realities of the new economic order.
Willmore 1
Key Concepts & Terms:
1. Capitalism2. Bessemer process3. Corporation4. Limited liability 5. Trust6. Consolidation7. Monopoly 8. Horizontal integration9. Vertical integration10. Gospel of Wealth11. Social Darwinism12. Taylorism13. Laissez-faire14. Pool Arrangements15. National Labor Union16. Knights of Labor17. American Federation of Labor18. Women’s Trade Union League19. Molly Maguires20.Socialist Labor Party 21. Standard Oil22. Great Railroad Strike23. Haymarket Riot24. Homestead Strike25. Pullman Strike26. Chinese Exclusion Act27. Child labor Laws28.“Anarchism”
Important People:
1. Cyrus W. Field2. Alexander Graham Bell3. Thomas Edison4. AdamSmith5. Henry Ford6. Cornelius Vanderbilt7. Andrew Carnegie8. J. P. Morgan9. John D. Rockefeller10. Herbert Spencer11. Horatio Alger12.Edward Bellam13. Eugene V. Debs14. Terence Powderly 15. Samuel Gompers16. Lester Frank Ward17. Henry George18. Russell Conwell
Internet Resources:
For Brinkley, American History - Survey internet quizzes, resources, references to additional books and films, and more, consult the text's Online Learning Center at www.mhhe.com/ brinkley11.For short videos and primary source documents go towww.icue.com
Willmore 2
Sectional Outline - Industrial Supremacy I. Industrial Workers in the New Economy 
A. The Struggle to Unionize1. Labora) Fight back against poor conditionsb) Same tactics as employers(1) Large combinations(a) Unions(2) Little success2. Craft unionsa) Small groups - skilled workersb) Before Civil Warc) Little influence(1) Leaders(a) Combine organizationsd) National Labor Union(1) 1866(2) William H Sylvis(3) Polyglot association; 640,000 members(4) Disintegrated - Panic of 18733. Women’s rightsa) Excluded form unionsb) Male argument:(1) Women used to drive down wages(2) Invoked ideal of domesticity c) Female argument:(1) Conditions impossible for men to support families4. Molly Maguiresa) Recession years of 1870 = difficulties(1) Widespread unemployment(2) Middle-class hostility toward unions(a) Disputes w/ employers - bitter, violent(b) Public blamed workersb) Militant labor organization(1) Anthracite coal region - Pennsylvania(2) Ancient Order of Hibernians - Irish fraternal society c) Terrorist tactics, intimidation(1) Violence, murder(2) + perception labor activism = dangerous radicals(3) Much performed by informers, agents(a) Employed by mine owners(b) Pretext of ruthless measuresi) Suppress unionizationB. The Great Railroad Strike1. Railroad strike - 1877a) Near hysteriab) Eastern railroad(1) 10% wage cutc) Class ward) Disrupted rail service(1) Baltimore St. Louise) Destroyed equipmentf) Rioted (Pittsburgh, et. al.)2. State militias called

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