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Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Conservation Research

Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Conservation Research

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Published by: Trisha Kehaulani Watson-Sproat on Mar 31, 2011
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Article
Traditional Ecological Knowledge in ConservationResearch: Problems and Prospects for theirConstructive Engagement
Janna M. Shackeroff and Lisa M. Campbell
 
Abstract:
In response to growing interest in accessing traditional ecologicalknowledge (TEK) for conservation purposes, we discuss some of the complexi-ties involved in doing TEK research. Specifically, we consider the issues of power and politicisation, ethics and situated knowledge. These are standard issues to be considered in any social scientific endeavour and are particularlycompelling when dealing with indigenous groups or cross-cultural contexts.We argue that the human context, and the researcher’s ability to adequatelyunderstand and account for it, will largely determine the success or failure of TEK research. To this end, we offer three broad recommendations for conser-vation researchers hoping to engage TEK. Only through an informed and conscientious approach can TEK be incorporated into mainstream conserva-tion research in a manner beneficial to both conservation and TEK holders.
Keywords:
traditional ecological knowledge, cross-cultural research, indige-nous research, power, ethics, situated knowledge, marine conservation biology
 
INTRODUCTION
C
ONSERVATION RESEARCHERS
are approaching traditional ecological knowl-edge (TEK) with increased alacrity (Drew 2005; Drew & Henne 2006; Fraseret al. 2006), recognising its potential contributions to both understand-
Janna M. Shackeroff 
and
Lisa M. Campbell,
Duke University Marine Lab, Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Duke University, 135 Duke Marine Lab Road, Beaufort,NC 28516, USA.
Address for Correspondence
Janna M. Shackeroff, Duke University Marine Lab, 135 Duke Marine Lab Road, Beaufort, NC28516, USA.
 E-mail
: js4@duke.edu
Conservation and Society,
Pages 343–360
Volume 5, No. 3, 2007
Copyright: © Shackeroff and Campbell 2007. This is an open access article distributed under the termsof the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use and distribution of thearticle, provided the original work is cited.
 
Shackeroff and Campbell
 
344
ing biological phenomena and the practice of protecting species and ecosys-tems. For example, fisheries biologists and ecologists have recognised theneed to engage with local knowledge holders, particularly when they are in-digenous and/or have long ties to ecosystems, in order to fill in the gaps in ourunderstanding of marine ecosystems (Pauly 1995; Pitcher & Pauly 1998) andto explore alternative approaches to management (Pitcher & Pauly 1998;McGoodwin 2001; Berkes 2003). Engaging with TEK (and also with localecological knowledge (LEK)) may indeed be a means for conservation re-searchers to link their efforts to the local environmental and cultural context(Berkes et al. 2003). It may also provide a much needed tool to help revampenvironmental management practices (Acheson 2005; McLeod & Leslie
forthcoming
). In the marine context in which we work, the potential for TEKmay be especially relevant given the current shift to ecosystems-based ap-proaches, and the dearth of historical marine ecological data (Jackson 1997;Jackson et al. 2001; Bolster 2006), the recognised need to break down barriersbetween disciplines, and the decreased distinction between basic and appliedresearch (Hughes et al. 2005).
1
In this vein, Drew (2005) notes that the typicalconservation biologist may find herself becoming a jack-of-all-trades, or an‘anthropologist, political advisor, economist and sociologist’ (Drew 2005:1286).While we agree with the value of TEK
2
to conservation, we are concernedthat some of the complex issues associated with conducting TEK research arebeing overlooked as enthusiasm for it grows. Whether TEK is sought out tofill in gaps in knowledge about species considered important by researchers,to understand traditional management practices and how these contribute to(or detract from) resource conservation, or to directly inform the design andimplementation of a conservation project or management strategy, failure toattend to the complexity in TEK research may result in substantial conse-quences for both the researchers and the TEK holders with whom they en-gage. For example, researchers who begin a TEK study with an oversimplifiedvision of what is required and what can be gained may be disillusioned withthe process of conducting TEK research and with results. Cumulative experi-ences may invite a backlash against this important research field, and mayeven bring harm to TEK holders and their communities (Tuhiwai-Smith1999).Whether TEK is of interest for basic or applied research, to natural or socialscientists, in this paper we use the generic terms ‘researcher’ and ‘scientist’ torefer to individuals engaged in research on TEK in a conservation context, re-gardless of how far distant the conservation application may be from the ac-tual data collection. While all researchers working in indigenous communitiesmay face challenges similar to those we describe below, there are additionalcomplexities associated with research on TEK in a conservation context. Forexample, conservation goals may not coincide with the worldview, practicesand perspectives on rights to resource use in the TEK-holding communities;
 
Traditional ecological knowledge in conservation research / 
 
345
conservation agendas may conflict directly with TEK-holder’s dependence onsubsistence gathering, or other culturally evolved practices of resource useand management (Berkes 1999). Attention to this conservation context runsthroughout the paper.Three issues that contribute to the complexity of TEK research are dis-cussed in this paper: power and politicisation, ethics and situated knowledge.These are standard issues to be considered in any social science research, andconducting research with TEK is primarily a social rather than a biophysicalscience. While the ultimate objective of researchers may be to collect detailedbiophysical data, the collection of these data is achieved through social inter-actions, for example, through interviews, participant observation, oral histo-ries, and intensive, preferably long-term engagement with the TEK holdersand immersion in their culture. These social interactions constitute part of thehuman context for TEK research, and although this context is important inany social science research, its importance is magnified several-folds in thecase of cross-cultural TEK research, where local people’s worldviews andways of knowing may differ dramatically from those of ‘Western’
3
research-ers.Challenges associated with researching TEK are plentiful. A researcher willfind himself/herself facing the dynamics involved when ‘researcher meets theresearched’ (and the researched talks back); the demands of ethical require-ments for conducting research with human subjects; and the challenges posedto his/her own views of nature and how it should be managed. These chal-lenges are also part of the human context of TEK research and, we argue thatthis human context, and the researcher’s ability to adequately understand andaccount for it, will largely determine the success or failure of TEK research.Success is a subjective term, open to interpretation; in this paper, we definesuccessful conservation TEK research as that which achieves research goals inan ethically sound and methodologically rigorous manner, and where goalsare meaningful to both the researcher and the ‘researched’. To this end, weconclude our paper by offering recommendations for pursuing successful con-servation research in indigenous communities.
POWER AND POLITICISATION
TEK has become an important intellectual topic (Berkes 1999) and an increas-ingly political one (Tuhiwai-Smith 1999). Politicisation, or political conten-tiousness, in TEK research stems in part from the inherently unequal powerrelations between the researchers and the researched. Many indigenous peopleand communities are concerned about being the subjects of research, a processthat has been described by various indigenous people as a ‘site of significantstruggle’ deeply intertwined with colonial histories (Tuhiwai-Smith 1999).Scientists engaged in TEK research are powerful in a number of ways, someof which they may not recognise.

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