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evaluation of bridge structures subjected to severe earthquakes

evaluation of bridge structures subjected to severe earthquakes

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Published by Yossi Reichman

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Published by: Yossi Reichman on Mar 31, 2011
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EVALUATION
OF
BRIDGE
STRUCTURESSUBJECTED
TO
SEVERE EARTHQUAKES
by
VOSSI
REICHMAN
September
1996
A dissertation submitted
to the
Faculty of
the
Graduate School of
the
State University of
New
York
in
partial fulfillment of the requirements
for
the
degree
of
Doctor of Philosophy
 
ABSTRACT
Current state-of-practice methods used for seismic analysis and design
of
bridgestructures are based on modified elastic spectral methods. These methods are unable toaddress certain critical issues that may be peculiar to bridge structures, namely: cyclicplastic behavior
of
structural elements, soil-structure interaction, differential groundmotion, the nonlinear modeling
of
base isolators and supplemental damping devices.
To
address these deficiencies, this research develops two evaluation methods based on (i)nonlinear time history analysis including the effects
of
the transient development
of
damage in structural components, and
(ii)
pushover procedures based on static and dynamiclateral loading approaches. Using the latter, it is possible
to
assess the global seismic
capacity
of
an entire bridge structure which can be used in conjunction with seismic
demand
determined from inelastic spectral techniques. Classical pushover analysis useslateral loads that are increased in a monotonic fashion until the bridge reaches its failurelimit state, this defines displacement capacity. This approach assumes a first-mode distribution
of
lateral forces and this distribution
of
forces is apt
to
miss higher mode effectswhich may be important, particularly for long bridges. Therefore, several procedures areconsidered
to
address this issue including: adaptive modal distribution, accelerationramps, and acceleration pulses. The latter two, being dynamic procedures, are generallycapable
of
capturing multi-modal and total dynamic effects.Several new modeling features are addressed in this research by the development
of
a3D computational platform (IDARC-BRIDGE). First, a new tri-axial model is developedthat is capable
of
accurately developing the behavior
of
sliding isolators including theinfluence
of
the changing vertical force and velocity on the friction coefficients. Second,modeling
of
the connection between the bridge deck and the substructure is advanced.This includes a macro-element representation
of
the deck seat with the effect
of
the spatiallayout
of
bearings and diaphragms by using features
of
elastic elements, hinge, spring, endreleases and rigid end block transformations.Finally, the proposed computational procedures are verified by comparing predictiveresults with a combination of closed-form analytical solutions, laboratory and field experimental results, as well
as
existing computational software. Several case studies are thenused to explore the utility of the proposed computational framework with a particularemphasis on capturing observed failure modes.
ii
 
Acknowledgments
This dissertation could
not have
been completed without
the
help of many people
who
have contributed
in
different
ways
to
make
this
work possible.I
wish
to
thank
my
committee members
for
helping
me
finish
my
dissertation
by
contributing from their valuable time
to
edit
it.
I
would
like
to
thank
my
major
advisor,
Prof.
A.M.
Reinhorn,
for
introducing
me
to
an
exciting
field
of research,
and
escorting
me
along
the
way.
I
have
special
regards
for
Prof.
M.C.
Constantinou.
His
remarkable dedica-tion
to
teaching
and
research introduced
me
to
the
field
of base isolation
and
passive con-
trol
and
inspired
me inmy
work.
I
would
like
to
thank
Prof.
J.B.
Mander for introducing
meto
the
subject of capacity design, which
was
an
important part
of
my
work.
Specialthanks
to
Prof.
M.P.
Gaus,
for
his help
and
support
in
hard times,
and
for providing
me
with a "fair deal".I
am
sure I could
have
never
been
able
to
perform research
at
this level without
the
encouragement
and
support
from
Prof!. Sheinman
from the Technion,
ISRAEL, and otherProfessors
atthe Technion,
who
provided
me
the
foundational of
body
of
my
professionalknowledge.It
is
obvious that without
true
friends
who
have
offered their support through
this
roller coaster experience,
success would
not
havebeen
possible.
Dr.
Roy
F.
Lobo
and
Dr.
Chen
Li
are
such
friends.
I
would
like to mention
also
all
the other friends I acquiredthrough
the
years
in
Ketter
Hall.My
arrival
to
V.B.
would not have been
possible without
the
initial support
and
the
on
going patience of
my
superiors
at
the Israeli Electric Corporation, especially
Mr.
iii

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