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Multicultural Approach and Information Communication Technology

Multicultural Approach and Information Communication Technology

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Published by Mourad Diouri
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Published by: Mourad Diouri on Mar 31, 2011
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Multicultural Approach and Information Communication TechnologyIn Arabic Language Teaching: Research on Indonesian Pesantren
MAIMUN AQSHA LUBIS, ISMAIL SUARDI WEKKE,MELOR MD. YUNUS, NORAZAH MOHD. NORDINFaculty of Education,Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,43600 UKM Bangi, SelangorMALAYSIAmal@ukm.my
Abstract: -
Multicultural Education Is One The Most Popular Term Used To Describe Education For Pluralism.On the other hand, one of the best platform to bring excellences in education is information and communicationtechnology (ICT). Through applying ICT in the language learning would enhance students’ capacity andaccelerate language pedagogy. This research tries to explain various practices and processes in the pesantrenthat constructed to reduce prejudice and discrimination with ICT assistance. In addition, it tries to explain thecurriculum is organized around concepts basic to each ethnic from several different group. The pesantrens arelocated in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The research design is qualitative approach. Data collected fromconducting interview and observational field data. Furthermore, data elaborated on grounded theories analysis.The study is ongoing research to pursue PhD in education at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. This studyshows that stakeholders in pesantren work with content integration and various practices deal with the extent towhich teachers use examples and content from a variety of culture to illustrate key concepts, principles andtheories in their subject area or discipline. Then, teachers conceptualize multicultural education as contentrelated to various ethnic and cultural group. Furthermore, the processes on learning through ICT point out thatit help students a mean to learn language. Finally, ICT extends learning processes and knowledge of the subjectand the same time improves their proficiency in the language.
Key-words:-
pesantren, multicultural education, language learning, ICT and education
 
1 Introduction
In the recent millenium, it cannot be denied that allof the part of the world are multicultural. It can beseen in the reality of society that there are diversecultural backgrounds. The conclusion also can beseen in Indonesian society. Indonesian society is atruly multicultural society. Indonesian society hasmultiple ethnic groups, social status groups,economic groups and educational groupsbackground. One of the multicultural groups inIndonesia is pesantren as instrumental part of educational religion. Therefore, it is a strategic pilarfor supporting development of human resources.The pesantren (Islamic boarding school) is not anew institution in Indonesia. It has a long traditionthat plays an imperative role in enhancing educationprocess. There is a substantial and growing body of evidence suggesting that pesantren is one of avalues-based and are able to engage in Indonesiancommunity. Obviously, one of the most importantfeatures in social and culture its attention to questionof multicultural.This research was designed to investigate themulticultural part role in pesantren curriculum andpedagogy. In this regard, the research focused onhow multicultural issues are defined through acurriculum and pedagogy practices process of education. This paper synthesizes some keyconcepts that have emerged in recent discussions onmulticultural in the larger fields of education andIslam and applies these concepts to exploring issuesof education. Critiques of binaries and essentialismin various forms constitute an important part of post-process approaches that attempt to uncoverpower, politics and ideologies underlying varioussocial relations. Given the wide range of topics tocover in this paper, the focus here is not to provide acomprehensive review of education in relation tomulticultural topics, but to survey some keyconcepts and use them to explore some futuredirections for education in South Sulawesi Province.In the past, a call for a ‘‘global conversation’’might invoke images of top-down commissionspopulated only by the voices of the global elites. Butthe rapid spread of information communications
Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS/IASME International Conference on EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES (EDUTE' 09)ISSN: 1790-5109 127 ISBN: 978-960-474-092-5
 
technology (ICT) and the internet offer humanitysomething it has never had before—an open,horizontally distributed, interconnected hyperlinkedglobal agora, within which matters of humanconcern can be discussed, debated, negotiated andabout which shared understandings can be found.The present paper is therefore an attempt towiden the scope of education studies by looking atpesantren and ICT. There are many questions to beanswered about this phenomenon, as we hope todemonstrate later; however, in this paper is mymajor concern is with the multicultural value in theeducational engagement and how the apply ICTthrough language learning and teaching.
2 Literature Review
Since its earliest conceptualizations in the 1960s,multicultural education has been transformed,refocused and reconceptualized in a constant state of evolution both in theory and in practice. It is rarethat any two classroom teachers or educationscholars will have the same definition formulticultural education. As with any dialogue oneducation, individuals tend to mold concepts to fittheir particular focus. Some discuss multiculturaleducation as a shift in curriculum, perhaps as simpleas adding new and diverse materials andperspectives to be more inclusive of traditionallyunderrepresented groups.Multicultural education is a progressive approachfor transforming education that holistically critiquesand addresses current shortcomings, failings anddiscriminatory practices in education. It is groundedin ideals of social justice, education equity and adedication to facilitating educational experiences inwhich all students reach their full potential aslearners and as socially aware and active beings,locally, nationally and globally. Multiculturaleducation acknowledges that schools are essential tolaying the foundation for the transformation of society and the elimination of oppression andinjustice. The underlying goal of multiculturaleducation is to affect social change. The pathwaytoward this goal incorporates three strands of transformation: the transformation of self; thetransformation of schools and schooling; and thetransformation of society.Demographic, social and economic trends haveimportant implications for education (Usun,2009)[1]. Multicultural education is intended todecrease race, ethnicity, class and gender divisionsby helping all students attain the knowledge,attitudes and skills that they need in order to becomeactive citizens in a democratic society andparticipate in social change (Schmid, 2007)[2]. It isimperative that teachers learn how to recognize,honor and incorporate the personal abilities of students into their teaching strategies (Mariani,2009)[3]. If this is done, then school achievementwill improve. This site is designed to assistpreservice and practicing teachers in becomingmulticultural educators. It should not be considereda single source to understanding multiculturaleducation, but rather a supplement to multiculturalstudies. It is divided into nine sections: schoolwide considerations, studying ethnic and culturalgroups, curriculum considerations, using media tosupport multiculturalism, resources, evaluation,build a case study, watch a video with probingquestions and bibliography.Multicultural education movement can be seenas a reform movement of the 1960s in the bothEurope and America in effort to removing the lack of educational system for the minorities.Multicultural education has their educationalfoundation from a child-centred educationalphilosophy which relating educational provision andstrategies to students' need and experiences. One of the pioneer of child centred education is Americanphilosopher and educator, John Dewey who lived inthe last century.In the period of 1970's development of multicultural education was continuing with a widerange of initiatives, some superficial and othersmore radical relying on teacher's situation and theirown personal educational philosophies. In thisperiod the multicultural education was workingthrough exploratory stage which was characterizedby their interest to transmit positive personal andsocial behaviour about cultural diversity in theclassroom context. During the 1970's the ideas aboutstudent's cultural multicultural background in theschool reform context were tried and developed inmany school. The society's understanding andconsciousness about their multicultural diversity inthe period can be seen through these followingsocial phenomena: "Ethnic groups all round theUnited States developed expression of their heritageand identity. The women's movement got well underway. Court cases and federal legislation supporteddiversity, such as the Lau decision supportingbilingual education, the Ethnic Heritage Act fundingmultiethnic curriculum development and theadoption by many states of goals statementssupporting teaching for cultural pluralism" (Sleeter& Grant, 1988: 139)[4].The development of the multicultural educationwas continuing in the 1980s together with thedynamic of social and political context of the
Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS/IASME International Conference on EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES (EDUTE' 09)ISSN: 1790-5109 128 ISBN: 978-960-474-092-5
 
decade. This approach is a new method to enhancethe process of leraning process Abdul Razak (2001)[5]. The multicultural education is basicallyeducation for a multicultural society. Multiculturaleducation is type of education that enables people indiverse background to accept and cope theirdifference, to be non judgemental and to accept theright of all people developing their linguistic,cultural and religious expression. In addition,multicultural education also can be defined aseducational policies and practices that recognize,accept and affirm human differences and similaritiesrelated to gender, race, handicap and class (Sleeter& Grant, 1988)[4]. Clearly a multicultural societyhas a number of elements. They are the existence of diversity, at least minimal sharing and interaction,equal access to economic and educational resources,political and civil rights, valuing of culturaldiversity and shared commitment to one nation(McLean,1991)[6]. Multicultural education aseducational concepts, theories and practices try toencompass problem of race, culture, language,social class and gender inequality in the area of education.Furthermore, there are three main goals of multicultural education: first is to provide educationfor a shared political and economical value system.Second is to provide education for cultural andethnic diversity. Third is to provide education forgreater equality of educational opportunity. Inaddition, according to Gollnich (In Sleeter & Grant,1988)[4] there are five goals of multiculturaleducation. The first goal is to promote the strengthand value of cultural diversity. The second goal is topromote human rights and respect for those who aredifferent from oneself. The third goal is to promotealternative life choice for people. The fourth goal isto promote social justice and equal opportunity forall people. Finally the fifth goal is to promote equityin the distribution of power among differencegroups.One of the most relevance and effective methodsin teaching multicultural education is a cooperativelearning method (Garrett, 1991)[7]. This method of cooperative learning can develop students’understanding others through interdependency task (Hanurawan & Diponegoro, 2005)[8]. Theories,research and practices from group social psychologycan contribute the development of cooperativelearning, e.g. theories, research and practicesinterdependency psychology. The theory of groupcohesiveness, social loafing and social facilitationcan be applied to cooperative learning inmulticultural education. Through the use of cooperative learning, students from diverse culturalbackground can increase the interracial and cross-gender friendship patterns and develop a strongersense of self-esteem, a more positive attitude towardschool and more internal locus of control. In linewith the social psychological theory, clearlyprejudice can be reduced by direct interpersonalcontact (Baron & Byrne, 1997)[9].In conclusion, multicultural education can beseen as the type of education which try to preparestudents living in the society with variety of culturalbackground. The basic objective of multiculturaleducation is to develop students' ability living in thecontext of multicultural society. Task of multicultural education is to help students to achievea higher stage of ethnic and cultural existence sothat there exist a sufficient cultural and socialoverlap for society to function. Ideology of multicultural education has aim to develop socialchange in our society to be society that regardscultural pluralism, equal opportunity, diversity andsocial justice.Many studies have investigated the use of information and communication technology inlanguage teaching and learning. One of theobjectives of learning a language is mainly anattempt to write for academic purpose. Becauseeffective teaching is based on the objective that thecourse will reach, the goal of teaching a language isexactly the same, namely to develop the ability of students to have skills and interact with people in anew language in real world situations (Widdowson,1978) [10].
2.1 Pesantren
A pesantren in Indonesia is a centre of learning andteaching. They has played important role because itis the oldest system of learning and education.Before Dutch colonialization established the moderneducation system, pesantren was the only oneeducational institution available. It should be notedthat the pesantren still plays its role as an educationcentre, but it has also to compete with moderneducational institutions. The pesantren
 
system, onthe other hand, does not have such strong authorityand position. It is just a medium by which Islamiclearning is developed and Islamic belief and normsare maintained. Islamic cultural identity as a criticaldiscourse distinctive from the notion of ‘Islamicidentity’ is a recent concern in the intellectualmilieu. Islam has an exclusive cultural feature whichshapes the supreme practices upheld by Muslims.Islamic cultural identity is a unique trait in Muslimsdue to its link with the religious value system.Leader of pesantren called kiyai or ustadz. Akiyai is children or family of pesantrens’ founder or
Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS/IASME International Conference on EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES (EDUTE' 09)ISSN: 1790-5109 129 ISBN: 978-960-474-092-5

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