Metternich was especially disturbed by the revolts in Italy b/c he saw them as a threat toAustria’s domination of the peninsula. At Trappau, he proposed a protocol thatestablished the principle of intervention.
The principle of intervention meant that the great powers of Europe had the right tosend armies into countries where there were revolutions to restore legitimatemonarchs to their thrones.
Britain refused to agree to the principle, arguing that it had never been the intentionof the Quadruple Alliance to interfere in the internal affairs of other states, except inFrance.
Ignoring the British response, Austria, Prussia, and Russia met in a 3
congress atLaibach in January 1821 and authorized the sending of Austrian troops to Naples.These forces crushed the revolt, restored Ferdinand I to the throne, and then movednorth to suppress the rebels in Piedmont.
At the 4
postwar conference, held in Verona in October 1822, the same 3 powersauthorized France to invade Spain to crush the revolt against Ferdinand VII. In thespring of 1823, French forces restored the Bourbon monarch.
This success for the policy of intervention came at a price. The Concert of Europe had broken down when the British rejected Metternich’s principle of intervention.
Although the British failed to thwart allied intervention in Spain and Italy, they weresuccessful in keeping the Continental powers from interfering w/the revolutions inLatin America.The Revolt of Latin America
Napoleon’s Continental wars at the beginning of the 19
c soon had repercussions in LatinAmerica.A.When the Bourbon monarchy of Spain was toppled by Napoleon, Spanish authorityin its colonial empire was weakened.B.By 1810, the disintegration of royal power in Argentina had led to that nation’sindependence.
In Venezuela, a bitter struggle for independence was led by Simon Bolivar, hailed as“The Liberator.” His forces freed Colombia in 1819 and Venezuela in 1821. A 2
liberator was Jose de San Martin, who freed Chile in 1817 and then in 1821 movedon to Lima, Peru, the center of Spanish authority. He was soon joined by Bolivar.D.Mexico and the central American provinces also achieved their freedom, and by1825, after Portugal had recognized the independence of Brazil, almost all of LatinAmerica had been freed of colonial domination.II.However, flushed by the success in crushing rebellions in Spain and Italy, the victoriousContinental powers favored the use of troops to restore Spanish control in Latin America.This time, British opposition to intervention prevailed.A.Eager to gain access to an entire continent for investment and trade, the British proposed joint action w/the United States against European interference in LatinAmerica.B.Britain’s navy stood b/w Latin America and any European invasion force, and theContinental powers were extremely reluctant to challenge British naval power.III.Although political independence brought economic independence to Latin America, old patterns were quickly reestablished.A.Instead of Spain and Portugal, Britain now dominated the Latin American economy.B.Old trade patterns so reemerged. B/c Latin America served as a source of rawmaterials and foodstuffs for the industrializing nations of Europe exports to the northAtlantic countries increased dramatically. At the same time, finished consumer goods, especially textiles, were imported in increasing quantities, causing a declinein industrial production in Latin America.C.The emphasis on exporting raw materials and importing finished products ensuredthe ongoing domination of the Latin American economy by foreigners.The Greek Revolt