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Published by irregularflowers
Notes on Speilvogel Chapter 21- Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism 1815-1850
Notes on Speilvogel Chapter 21- Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism 1815-1850

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Published by: irregularflowers on Aug 28, 2008
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Sp. Ch.21
Chapter 21: Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism 1815-1850The Conservative Order (1815-1830)
I.The immediate response to the defeat of Napoleon was the desire to contain revolutionand the revolutionary forces by restoring much of the old order.The Peace SettlementI.In March 1814,b/f Napoleon had been defeated, his 4 major enemies—Great Britain,Austria, Prussia, and Russia—had agreed to remain united, not only to defeat France butalso to ensue peace after the war.
A.
After Napoleon’s defeat, this Quadruple Alliance restored the Bourbon monarchy toFrance in the person of Louis XVIII and agreed to meet at a congress in Vienna inSeptember 1814 to arrange a final peace settlement.
II.
The leader of the Congress of Vienna was the Austrian foreign minister, Prince Klemensvon Metternich.The Principle of Legitimacy
I.
Metternich claimed that he was guided at Vienna by the principle of legitimacy.
A.
To reestablish peace and stability in Europe, he considered it necessary to restore thelegitimate monarchs who would preserve traditional institutions. This had already been done in the restoration of the Bourbons in France and Spain.
B.
Elsewhere, the principle of legitimacy was largely ignored and overshadowed bymore practical considerations of power.C.Prussia and Austria were allowed to keep some Polish territory. A new, nominallyindependent Polish kingdom was established w/the Romanov dynasty of Russia as itshereditary monarchs. Although Poland was granted its independence, the kingdom’sforeign policy remained under Russian control.A New Balance of Power 
I.
In making these territorial rearrangements, the diplomats at Vienna believed they wereforming a new balance of power that would prevent any one country from dominatingEurope.A.To balance Russian gains, Prussia and Austria had been strengthened.II.Considerations of the balance of power also dictated the allied treatment of France.France had not been significantly weakened, it remained a great power.A.The fear that France might again upset the European peace remained so strong thatthe conferees attempted to establish major defensive barriers against possible Frenchexpansion.B.To the north of France, they created a new enlarged kingdom of the Netherlandscomposed of the former Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands under a newruler, William I of the house of Orange.C.To the south-east, Piedmont was enlarged. On France’s eastern frontier, Prussia wasstrengthened by giving it control of the territory along the east bank of the Rhine.
D.
The Congress of Vienna also created a new league of German states, the GermanicConfederation, to replace the Napoleonic Confederation of the Rhine.III.It was decided to punish the French people for their enthusiastic response to Napoleon’sreturn.A.France’s borders were pushed back to those of 1790, and the nation was forced to pay an indemnity and accept an army of occupation for 5 years.
B.
The order established by the Congress of Vienna managed to avoid a generalEuropean conflict for almost a century.An Ideology of Conservatism
I.
The peace arrangement of 1815 was the beginning of a conservative reaction determinedto contain the liberal and nationalist forces unleashed by the French Revolution.
A.
Metternich and his kind were representatives of an ideology known as conservatism.
 
B.
As a modern political philosophy, conservatism dates from 1790 when EdmundBurke wrote his
 Reflections on the Revolution in France
in reaction to the FrenchRevolution, especially its radical republican and democratic ideas.
C.
Burke maintained that society was a contract, but “the state ought not to beconsidered as nothing better than a partnership agreement in a trade of pepper andcoffee, to be taken up for temporary interest and to be dissolved by the fancy of the parties.” No one generation has the right to destroy this partnership; each generationhas the duty to preserve and transmit it to the next.
D.
Burke advised against the violent overthrow of a government by revolution, but hedid not reject the possibility of change. Sudden change was unacceptable, but thatdid not eliminate gradual evolutionary improvements.
II.
Burke’s conservatism, however, was not the only kind.
A.
Joseph de Maistre was the most influential spokesman for counterrevolutionary andauthoritarian conservatism.B.He espoused the restoration of hereditary monarchy, which he regarded as a divinelysanctioned institution. Only absolute monarchy could guarantee “order in society”and avoid the chaos generated by movements like the French Revolution.
III.
Despite their differences, most conservatives held to a general body of beliefs. Theyfavored obedience to political authority, believed that organized religion was crucial tosocial order, hated revolutionary upheavals, and were unwilling to accept either theliberal demands for civil liberties and representative governments or the nationalisticaspirations generated by the French revolutionary era.A.The community took precedence over individual rights; society must be organizedand ordered, and tradition remained the best guide for order.B.After 1815, the political philosophy of conservatism was supported by hereditarymonarchs, government bureaucracies, landowning aristocracies, and revivedchurches. The conservative forces appeared dominant after 1815, both internally anddomestically.Conservative Domination: The Concept of Europe
I.
The European powers’ fear of revolution and war led them to develop the Concert of Europe as a means to maintain the new status quo they had constructed.
A.
This accord grew out of the reaffirmation of the Quadruple Alliance in November 1815.B.Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria renewed their commitment against anyattempted restoration of the Bonapartist power and agreed to meet periodically inconferences to discuss their common interests and examine measures that “will be judged most salutary for the repose and prosperity of peoples, and for themaintenance of peace in Europe.”II.In accordance w/the agreement for periodic meetings, 4 congresses were held b/w 1818and 1822.
A.
The 1
st
, held in 1818 at Aix-la-Chapelle, was by far the most congenial.
B.
The 4 great powers agreed to withdraw their army of occupation from France and toadd France to the Concert of Europe. The Quadruple Alliance became the QuintupleAlliance.III.The next congress was less pleasant. This session, at Trappau, was called in 1820 to dealw/the outbreak of revolution in Spain and Italy.A.The revolt in Spain was directed against Ferdinand VII, the Bourbon king who had been restored to the throne in 1814.B.In southern Italy, the restoration of another Bourbon, Ferdinand I, as king of Naplesand Sicily sparked a rebellion that soon spread to Piedmont in northern Italy.The Principle of Intervention
 
I.
Metternich was especially disturbed by the revolts in Italy b/c he saw them as a threat toAustria’s domination of the peninsula. At Trappau, he proposed a protocol thatestablished the principle of intervention.
A.
The principle of intervention meant that the great powers of Europe had the right tosend armies into countries where there were revolutions to restore legitimatemonarchs to their thrones.
B.
Britain refused to agree to the principle, arguing that it had never been the intentionof the Quadruple Alliance to interfere in the internal affairs of other states, except inFrance.
C.
Ignoring the British response, Austria, Prussia, and Russia met in a 3
rd
congress atLaibach in January 1821 and authorized the sending of Austrian troops to Naples.These forces crushed the revolt, restored Ferdinand I to the throne, and then movednorth to suppress the rebels in Piedmont.
D.
At the 4
th
postwar conference, held in Verona in October 1822, the same 3 powersauthorized France to invade Spain to crush the revolt against Ferdinand VII. In thespring of 1823, French forces restored the Bourbon monarch.
II.
This success for the policy of intervention came at a price. The Concert of Europe had broken down when the British rejected Metternich’s principle of intervention.
A.
Although the British failed to thwart allied intervention in Spain and Italy, they weresuccessful in keeping the Continental powers from interfering w/the revolutions inLatin America.The Revolt of Latin America
I.
 Napoleon’s Continental wars at the beginning of the 19
th
c soon had repercussions in LatinAmerica.A.When the Bourbon monarchy of Spain was toppled by Napoleon, Spanish authorityin its colonial empire was weakened.B.By 1810, the disintegration of royal power in Argentina had led to that nation’sindependence.
C.
In Venezuela, a bitter struggle for independence was led by Simon Bolivar, hailed as“The Liberator.” His forces freed Colombia in 1819 and Venezuela in 1821. A 2
nd
liberator was Jose de San Martin, who freed Chile in 1817 and then in 1821 movedon to Lima, Peru, the center of Spanish authority. He was soon joined by Bolivar.D.Mexico and the central American provinces also achieved their freedom, and by1825, after Portugal had recognized the independence of Brazil, almost all of LatinAmerica had been freed of colonial domination.II.However, flushed by the success in crushing rebellions in Spain and Italy, the victoriousContinental powers favored the use of troops to restore Spanish control in Latin America.This time, British opposition to intervention prevailed.A.Eager to gain access to an entire continent for investment and trade, the British proposed joint action w/the United States against European interference in LatinAmerica.B.Britain’s navy stood b/w Latin America and any European invasion force, and theContinental powers were extremely reluctant to challenge British naval power.III.Although political independence brought economic independence to Latin America, old patterns were quickly reestablished.A.Instead of Spain and Portugal, Britain now dominated the Latin American economy.B.Old trade patterns so reemerged. B/c Latin America served as a source of rawmaterials and foodstuffs for the industrializing nations of Europe exports to the northAtlantic countries increased dramatically. At the same time, finished consumer goods, especially textiles, were imported in increasing quantities, causing a declinein industrial production in Latin America.C.The emphasis on exporting raw materials and importing finished products ensuredthe ongoing domination of the Latin American economy by foreigners.The Greek Revolt

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